In the summer of 2016 I began a long series on the Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. I made about 75 posts that summer but only managed to work through the Enoch literature, the Sibylline Oracles, Fourth Ezra and 2 Baruch, and short posts on Treatise of Shem, The Apocryphon of Ezekiel, and Apocalypse of Zephaniah. I picked up the series again in the summer of 2017 and worked my way through Joseph and Asenath. Even after 120 posts on this literature, there is still many more the pseudepigraphical books I have yet to cover in Charlesworth. I hope to get to the recent More Noncanonical Scriptures, Volume 1 (eds. Richard Bauckham, James R. Davila, Alexander Panayotov; Eerdmans 2013).
My original motivation for the series was preparation for teaching an intertestamental literature class in Spring 2017. I enjoyed teaching the class and I think most of the students liked the class and learned a great deal about the literature of the Second Temple Period. Evangelicals tend to shy away from this material, but I think it is essential to have a firm grasp on what was in the air in the Second Temple period in order to understand the New Testament, especially as more scholars recognized the apocalyptic nature of both Jesus and Paul.
Another benefit of an open publication like this blog is the feedback I get from readers. There were a number of comments which interacted with what I had posted and often gave me new insights or links to other material to supplement my posts. Most of the posts in the original series still generate hits every day, so I hope people are finding some value in this series.
- Translations of 1 Enoch
- Reading 1 Enoch in Ethiopic
- When was 1 Enoch Written?
- Enoch and the Essene Hypothesis
- The Book of Watchers – 1 Enoch 1-5
- The Fallen Angels – 1 Enoch 6-8
- The Archangels Render Justice -1 Enoch 9-11
- Enoch Pleads with the Watchers – 1 Enoch 12-16
- Enoch’s Heavenly Journey – 1 Enoch 17-36
- Dating the Similitudes – 1 Enoch 37-71
- The Book of Parables – 1 Enoch 37-44
- The Second Parable – 1 Enoch 45-49
- The Second Parable – 1 Enoch 50-52
- A Final Judgment– 1 Enoch 53-57
- The Third Parable – 1 Enoch 58-63
- The Third Parable – 1 Enoch 64-71
- The Parables of 1 Enoch and the New Testament
- The Book of the Heavenly Luminaries – 1 Enoch 72-82
- The Dream Visions – 1 Enoch 82-83
- The Animal Apocalypse, Part 1 – 1 Enoch 85-90
- The Animal Apocalypse, Part 2 – 1 Enoch 85-90
- The Epistle of Enoch – 1 Enoch 99-105
- What is 2 Enoch?
- Enoch’s Journey through the Heavens – 2 Enoch 1-22
- Enoch and the Mysteries of God – 2 Enoch 23-37
- 2 Enoch and the Sermon on the Mount – 2 Enoch 38-63
- Enoch and the Birth of Melchizedek – 2 Enoch 64-73
- Introduction to the Sibylline Literature
- Dating the Sibylline Oracles, Books 1-3
- Dating the Sibylline Oracles, Books 4-7
- Dating the Sibylline Oracles, Books 8-14
- Seven Generations of the World – Sibylline Oracles 1.1-323
- The Christian Interpolation – Sibylline Oracle, Book 1.324-400
- The Tenth Generation – Sibylline Oracles, Book 2.1-55
- An Extract from Pseudo-Phocylides – Sibylline Oracles, Book 2.56-148
- Sibylline Oracles, Book 3
- Kingdoms of the World – Sibylline Oracles Book 3.1-294
- Oracles against the Nations – Sibylline Oracles Book 3.295-488
- Prophecies of Disaster – Sibylline Book 3.489-544
- In the Tenth Generation – Sibylline Oracles, Book 4
- A Star Will Shine – Sibylline Oracles Book 5.1-154
- The Burning Sun among the Stars – Sibylline Oracles Book 5.155-531
- Christian or Gnostic? – Sibylline Oracles, Book 7
- Nero Redivivus – Sibylline Oracles, Book 8.1-216
- Christological Poems – Sibylline Oracles, Book 8.217-500
- A History of the World – Sibylline Oracles, Book 11
- Roman Emperors – Sibylline Oracles, Book 12
- A Christian Introduction to 4 Ezra
- Ezra’s First Vision – 4 Ezra 3:1-5:20
- Ezra’s Second Vision – 4 Ezra 5:21-6:34
- Ezra’s Third Vision – 4 Ezra 6:35-9:25
- Ezra’s Fifth Vision – 4 Ezra 11:1-12:51 (The Eagle Vision)
- Ezra’s Sixth Vision – 4 Ezra 13:1-58 (The Man from the Sea)
- Ezra’s Seventh Vision – 4 Ezra 14:1-48
- The New Testament and 4 Ezra
2 (Syriac Apocalypse of) Baruch
- 2 Baruch and the Fall of Jerusalem
- A Vision on Zion – 2 Baruch 13-21
- The Anointed One Will Appear – 2 Baruch 22-34
- The Consolation of Zion – 2 Baruch 35-44
- Zeal for the Lord and the Anointed One – 2 Baruch and the Law
- The Messianic Age – 2 Baruch 48-51
- A Vision of Many Waters – 2 Baruch 52-73
- Eternal Peace – 2 Baruch 73-76
Apocalypse of Elijah
Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs
- What are the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs?
- The Testament of Reuben
- The Testament of Simeon
- Ethics in the Testament of Levi
- Apocalyptic in the Testament of Levi
- Testament of Levi and the Priesthood
- Women and Money in the Testament of Judah
- Apocalyptic in the Testament of Judah
- Testament of Issachar
- Testament of Zebulon
- Testament of Dan
- Testament of Naphtali
- Testament of Gad
- Testament of Asher
- Testament of Joseph
- Testament of Benjamin
Testament of Job
Testament of Abraham
- What is the “Testament of Abraham”?
- “No One Escapes Death” – Testament of Abraham 1-9
- The Death of Abraham – Testament of Abraham 15-20
- Abraham’s Heavenly Journey – Testament of Abraham 10- 14
Testament of Moses
Testament of Solomon
- What is the Testament of Solomon?
- A Catalog of Demons
- Testament of Solomon: Several Biblical Expansions
- What is the Book of Jubilees?
- Why Was Jubilees Written?
- The Law in Jubilees
- Sacred Geography and Sacred Time in Jubilees
- From Creation to Flood – Jubilees 1-10
- Expansions on the Story of Abraham in Jubilees 11-23
- Expansions on the Stories of Isaac and Jacob in Jubilees 24-38
Joseph and Aseneth
- Main Themes of Daniel
- When was the Book of Daniel Written?
- Daniel and the End of the Ages
- Faithful Diaspora Jews – Daniel, Joseph and Tobit
- Daniel 1:1-7 – Why was Daniel Taken to Babylon?
- Daniel 1:8-16 – What was Wrong with the King’s Food?
- Daniel 2:1-13 – Nebuchadnezzar’s Dream
- Daniel 2:24-45 – Nebuchadnezzar’s Vision and Its Interpretation
- Daniel 3:1-7 – Worshiping the Statue
- Daniel 3:13-18 – Confession of the Three Exiles
- Daniel 3:19-27 – Who is the Fourth Man in the Fiery Furnace?
- Daniel 4 – Is Nebuchadnezzar’s Madness Historical?
- Daniel 5 – The Feast of Belshazzar
- Daniel 5:5-12 – What was the Meaning of the Handwriting on the Wall?
- Daniel 6:1 – Who is Darius the Mede?
- Daniel 6 and 1-2 Maccabees
- Daniel 7:4-8 – The Four Beasts
- Who is the “Little Horn” in Daniel 7:8?
- Daniel 7:9-14 – The Heavenly Throne Room
- Daniel 8 –The Ram and the Goat
- Daniel 9:20-27 – The Prophecy of the Seventy Sevens
- Daniel 10 – Daniel’s Vision of a Great Angelic Being
- Daniel 10 – Who is the Prince of Persia?
- Daniel 11 and History
- Daniel 11:2-20 – Who are the Kings of the North and South?
- Daniel 11:21-35 – Concerning Antiochus IV Epiphanes
- Daniel 11:29-35 – The Fall of Antiochus IV Epiphanes
- Daniel 11:36-12:3 – The Willful King
Daniel Book Reviews:
- Tremper Longman III, How to Read Daniel
- Joe Sprinkle, Daniel (Evangelical Biblical Theology Commentary)
- J. Paul Tanner, Daniel (Evangelical Exegetical Commentary)