The Apocryphon of Ezekiel is a lost work known only through a fragment preserved in Epiphanes (Against Heresies 64.70, 5-17), the Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 91a, a fragment preserved in 1 Clement 8:3, a number variations of a saying Tertullian attributed to Ezekiel, a fragment in Justin Martyr (Dialogue, 47), and a fragment in Clement of Alexandria (Paedagogus, 1:9).  A late date for the larger work can be set by First Clement is normally dated to A.D. 95.  Josephus seems knows of Ezekiel (Ant. 10.5.1 mentions two books).  Dates for Apocryphon of Ezekiel therefore range from 50 B.C. to A.D. 50 (Mueller and Robinson, 488).

Roman Feast 01The first fragment contains a parable used by Epiphanes to discuss the relationship of the body and the soul.  A king drafted his entire population into the army so there were no civilians except a blind man and a lame man. The king gave a wedding banquet for his son and invited the entire kingdom except the two civilians. They were insulted at this snub and made a plan to work together to enter the king’s garden. The blind man helps the lame man walk, the lame man led the blind man. (The version in the Talmud is slightly different in that the two men simply enter the garden and steal new figs without the wedding banquet.)

When the king discovers what the men did he questions them, but they deny responsibility.  The blind man could not have entered the garden because he cannot see, the lame man cannot walk.  In Epiphanes’ version the king flogs the men to discover the truth – the one blames the other.  In both versions of this parable the point is to illustrate the relationship of the soul and the body.

This parable is a potential parallel to the Parable of the Wedding Feast in Matthew 22:1-14 or the Great Banquet in Luke 14:15-35. In both biblical parables and the Apocryphon version a king gives a banquet and invites many guests.  But in the biblical version the invited guests do not come to the banquet and are replaced by the blind, lame, etc.

The point of the parable of Jesus is to describe his ministry (those who were invited to the wedding banquet reject the invitation and are replaced with “outsiders”) rather than a description of the body and soul.  In the Apocryphon’s version the guests all accept the invitation, the two “outsiders” are not among those who should be at the banquet. What is clear from this fragment is that the metaphor of a wedding banquet was common, but also flexible enough to be used in different ways.

A wedding banquet is not always about the coming Kingdom of God.

The text is known from a fifteenth century Syriac manuscript (Rylands Syriac MS).  The original may have been written in Hebrew or Aramaic, although Aramaic is more likely if the provenance is Alexandria, as Charlesworth thinks it is.  The book was dated by Charlesworth to the early twenties B.C. based on the implication the author knows the battle of Actium and some details of Anthony’s political maneuvering in Egypt.  Collins, however, notes there is no clear evidence of this date and it could come from much later (Athens, 164, n. 37).

John Collins called the Treatise of Shem “the most striking endorsement of astrology by a Jewish author” (Athens, 42, n. 63). While astrology is generally associated with evil and demonic forces (1 Enoch 8.3, SibOr 3.220-236, Jub. 12), we find a remarkable number of zodiac-related material in Judaism. Despite the anti-astrology statement in 1 Enoch 8.3, 1 Enoch 72.1-37 adapts the zodiac signs as gateways or portals.  The zodiac is also present at Qumran: 4QCryptic (4Q186): a man’s characteristics are determined by the zodiac sign under which he was born. A man born under the sign of Taurus, for example, will be poor and have long thin toes.

MagiInterest in the zodiac may have been more common in Judaism than we expect: “paganism, at least via astrology, had become attractive to, and made an impression upon, numerous Jews during the Hellenistic and Roman periods” (Charlesworth, “Jewish Astrology”, 200 note 59, commenting on the work of David Flusser, “Paganism in Palestine” in The Jewish People in the First Century (Compendia rerum Iudaicarum ad Novum Testamentum, section 1) 1065-1099).

Each section of the Treatise describes the year beginning in a particular sign of the Zodiac.  These oracles are stereotypical, using several repeated elements important to describing the general year.  Nearly every chapter has a reference to the flood of the Nile (only 10 and 11 are missing this feature.)  The activities of Rome are important in chapters 1, 2 and 11, the activities of Egypt are found in 1, 2, 6 (Alexandria), 9, and 12.

A striking feature of many oracles is that people whose names contain certain Hebrew letters will have misfortunes if the year begins in a particular Zodiac sign. For example, in chapter 2, if the year begins in Taurus, all those whose names contain a Beth, Yod, of Kaph will become ill or be wounded by iron. This feature is found in every chapter except 4 and 5. There is a tacit acceptance of fate in this sort of text.  The general flow of a year is determined by the sign of a Zodiac.

Since the text dates to just before the first century, the Treatise of Shem is important for New Testament studies in showing that at least some of the Jews were interested in astrology. While the text is clearly Diaspora (Egyptian as the interest in the Nile indicates), we know the Qumran community preserved similar texts dealing with astrological predictions (4QCryptic = 4Q186).

An example of astrology in the New Testament is the Magi from the east who used a star to known when the King of the Jews had been born. While the Treatise of Shem deals simply with general predictions based on the beginning of a year, other astrological texts appear to have been in use by Jews despite the prohibitions of the Law.

 

Bibliography:

James Charlesworth, “Jewish Astrology in the Talmud, Pseudepigrapha, the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Early Palestinian Synagogues,” Harvard Theological Review 70 (July-Oct 1977) 183-200.

Francis Schmidt, “Ancient Jewish Astrology: An Attempt to Interpret 4QCryptic (4Q186),” in Biblical Perspectives (Leiden : E J Brill, 1998), 189-205.

This Oracle continues the themes of book 11, extending the history into the currant era. Augustus is described as a ruler no other Roman will ever exceed, a man God approved for this hour (14-35). There is a brief “Christian insertion” in 30-34 which predicts the coming of the Messiah, the “bright star like the sun.

Roman EmperorsThe book includes sections on the emperors of Rome, including a comment about their character and history, usually a comment about their appearance, hair color, etc. and a hint at their name (the one with the number three hundred as his first initial). This serves to show the “riddle” of Rev 13:18 (the number of the beast) was common enough in the ancient world. NB: the numbers in parenthesis are lines in the oracle, not dates.

  • Tiberius (37-47, he will rule wearing purple, and “sack the city with high gates”).
  • Gaius (48-66, a man with “deceitful locks”).
  • Claudius (68-75, terrible signs accompany his reign, darkness at noon). OTP 1:447, note m states there were four solar eclipses during his reign.
  • Nero (78-94), “a terrible snake, an athlete, charioteer and murderer” who later flees and perishes wretchedly).
  • Galba, Otho, and Vitelius (95-98)
  • Vespasian (99-116, a “great destroyer”).
  • Titus (117-123, a noble lord who falls by deceit).
  • Domitian (124-143, all mortals will love him but he will receive a wound in the middle of his chest). This is rarely mentioned as a potential background to the wounding of the beast in Revelation 13, which is remarkable since Domitian is often cited as the emperor in the immediate context of Revelation.
  • Nerva (143-146, a majestic man, slain and gone to Hades).
  • Trajan (147-163, a mighty warrior who will die on foreign soil).
  • Hadrian (164-175, a silver-haired man who will bring a long peace).
  • The Antonines (176-185, three who rule for three decades).
  • Marcus Aurelius (186-205, a man who knows many wise things, at whose prayer it will rain).
  • Commodus (206-223, he will live dangerously and will suffer evil in a bath).
  • The Death of Commodus (224-235, when the destructive time is near for Rome).
  • Pertinax (236-244, a man who will shed blood with sharp bronze swords).
  • Didius Iulianus (245-249, he will have a swift fate, mighty in war and smitten by iron).
  • Pescennius Niger (250-255, another warrior, will die on the Assyrian plains).
  • Septimus Severus (256-268, a resourceful and crafty man who knows what is expedient).
  • Alexander Severus (269-288, he will reign with an infant and have the name of a Macedonian prince).

The conclusion to the book is a warning that those who honor God and forget idols will have joy (289-299).  What is remarkable about this conclusion is that none of these kings could be said to have honored God in the least.  In general this review of history is quite complimentary to the Roman emperors.  One might expect a Christian writer to have portrayed Domitian, for example, as a great evil ruler because of his persecution of the church. Unless, of course, Domitian was not a great persecutor as many scholars have claimed.

This may help several scholars who have argued external persecution is not the problem in the book of Revelation.  See for example Alan James Beagley, The “Sitz Im Leben” of the Apocalypse with Particular Reference to the Role of the Church’s Enemies (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1987).  For a brief summary of Beagley’s position, see his article “Babylon” in Dictionary of the Later New Testament and Its Development (Downers Grove:  InterVarsity, 1997), 111-112.

Collins dates this book to the “turn of the era” and considers it an example of Diaspora Judaism.  We are therefore back to the early part of the development of the format of the sibyl, but as Collins notes, this is very different than Sibylline 3 and 5 (OTP 1:432).

PythiaThis text is not particularly religions but is political propaganda, interested in Egyptian political movements. As such, there is no familiar eschatology at all in the book, but rather a history of the political relationship between Rome and Egypt. This book is valuable for setting the context of other Diaspora books, but has little to say for New Testament backgrounds.  Common features of the book include a ten-generation history of the world (line 14) and a series of oracles working through the kingdoms which ruled the world through those ten generations (Egypt, Persian, Media, India / Ethiopia, the Assyrians, Macedonia, then Rome).

There is remarkable is a summary of the Trojan War (123-163) and a reference to Virgil (164-171).  Alexander the Great receives a long poem 195-223, (“the one whose name begins with the first letter”).  The diadochi are described (223-243), with the final sections detailing the intrigue of Cleopatra (243-260) and eventually Julius Caesar (261-276).

The writer of the oracle predicts (or expresses some wishful thinking) that Egypt will fall (276-314) and be judged by God himself (311-314):

Therefore God himself, the imperishable prince who lives in the sky, will utterly destroy you and impel you to lamentation, and you will make amends for what you formerly did lawlessly. At last you will realize that the anger of God has come upon you.

There is no hint of Christian editing (no allusion to Jesus or a coming Kingdom, for example). In fact, the book ends with the words of the Sibyl who will be confirmed at Panopeia as a “true seer, chanter of oracles, though someone will call me a messenger with frenzied spirit.”

Lines 217-250 of the eighth Sibylline oracle form an acrostic poem based on “Jesus Christ Son of God, Savior, Cross.” The theme of the poem is eschatology and much is drawn from the Old Testament (the heavens will roll up, Isa 34:4, for example.) The oracle makes a connection between Jesus and the Old Testament messiah figure and concludes with a statement that “this is our God, no proclaimed in acrostics, the king, the immortal savior who suffered for us.”

annunciationThe second Christological poem (251-336) includes many references to the life of Christ: feeding the 5000 in line 275; “your king comes on a foal of a donkey;” the passion in 280-284; “the veil of the Temple will be rent, and in midday there will be dark monstrous night for three hours” (305-306). Jesus goes to Hades announcing hope for all (perhaps a hint of the “harrowing of hell,” 1 Peter 3:19). The resurrection of Jesus is clear, “and then, returning from the dead, he will come to light, first of the resurrection, showing a beginning to the elect” (313). This is followed by an eschatological fragment in 337-358. The catastrophic signs found elsewhere in the Sibyllines reappear..

A lengthy speech by God himself condemns idolatry (359-428). There is a consistent theme in this poem of God as creator and the offense of man worshiping creation. God has, for example, “formed eyes and ears, seeing and hearing” (368) and knows every thought. “Abandoning the Creator, they worshiped licentiousness. All have gifts from me but give them to useless things, and they think all these things useful, like my honors making burnt offerings at meals, as to their own dead.” Similar to Romans 1:18f, humans have abandoned their creator, pursuit of sexual sin 381.

The hymn to God appearing in lines 429-455 is similar to pagan thinking about God (OTP 1:427, note t2). God is “Self-begotten, undefiled, everlasting, eternal” (429). Like the Jewish use of Greek mythology in the early Sibyls or the Christian use of Gnosticism in the seventh Sibyl, this writer / compiler has drawn on Greco-Roman philosophy to describe God.

The poem concerning the incarnation in 456-479 reflects fairly advanced theology and the Virgin Mary is featured prominently. The archangel Gabriel says to Mary, “‘Receive God, Virgin, in your immaculate bosom.’ Thus speaking, he breathed in the grace of God, even to one who was always a maiden.” (461-462). It is possible it was appended at a later date when Mary becomes more important in Catholic theology.

The final paragraph on ethics closed the book (480-500). The Christian reader is admonished to never “approach the sanctuaries of temples nor to pour libations to statues nor to honor them with prayers” (487-489) nor “to defile the light of the sky with smoke from burnt offerings” (494). Perhaps this exhortation to abstain from sacrifice reflects a period when Christians were not yet fully depaganized, making sacrifices in order to appear loyal to civic cults.

The eighth Sibylline oracle contains a wealth of clear historical allusions. The first 216 lines are probably Jewish with some Christian interpolations. The second half of the book draws together various sources, nearly all Christian and interested in developing Christology. We are therefore dealing with an oracle at the Christian end of the spectrum, placing Christian theology in the mouth of a pagan seer.

Colossus of NeroThe Sibyl beings with a description of the kingdoms of the world: the Persians, the Medes, the Ethiopians, Assyria Babylon, Macedonia, and then the “famous lawless kingdom of the Italians” (1-16). These kingdoms will be judged, “the mills of God grind fine flour, though late” (14, OTP comments this is an old Greek proverb).

Greed is condemned (17-36). Greed is the “source of impiety and forerunner of disorder, deviser of wars, a hostile troubler of peace” (24-25). Like Revelation 18, the writer characterizes Roman as a greedy nation and an oppressor the poor. Because of their greed, Rome will be destroyed “one day” by a heavenly affliction and no god will be able to save them (37-49). Their wealth will be laid low and the race will become lifeless corpses.

Lines 50-67 describe Hadrian as the “luxurious one” who inspects the world with polluted foot, giving gifts.” This is an allusion to Hadrian’s tour of the provinces in A.D. 121-130.  He will participate in magical shrines and “display a child of the gods” (His favorite son was deified in A.D. 130 after he was accidently drowned in Egypt). Three kings will rule after Hadrian, “fulfilling the name of the heavenly God whose power is both now and for all ages.”

The next section concerns the return of Nero during the reign of “an old man,” Marcus Aurelius (A.D. 121-180). A “matricidal exile returns from the ends of the earth” and will control dominions far and wide (68-72).

Rome will be judged (73-109, 123-130). They will be brought down from their great height by “gigantic hands” (100) and be made to dwell under the earth, everyone will hear bellowing from Hades and the gnashing of teeth. All will be judged in the great tribunal of God (110-122). This section is inserted into the condemnation of Rome and breaks off after a long list of “equality” statements (there will be no king, no tyrant, etc.) The age will be “common to all.” (Cf. 1 Enoch 53:6-7, the “leveling” of social groups in Matthew 3). In lines 131-138 Hadrian is praised as ruling “by the counsels of the great God without contamination.”

The text breaks off with “When the time of the phoenix comes” (139-159), but it is enough for Collins to once again identify this as a text about the return of Nero. By the reign of Marcus Aurelius, Nero would have been long dead, so the image of the Phoenix is appropriate to describe the rebirth of this enemy of God’s people. He will return to ravage the race of peoples, the nation of the Hebrews.

This section is an allusion to the persistent rumor Nero faked his death in A.D. 68 and would eventually return to his rightful place as emperor of Rome. Some scholars detect this in Revelation 13 where the first beast (representing Rome) appears to have died but is revived by the second beast. Sometimes this is used to date Revelation early, since the possibility of Nero’s return would diminish by the 90s since Nero would have been quite old by then. But this oracle implies Nero could return nearly 100 years after his own death, rising like a Phoenix to persecute God’s people once again.

The final and greatest evil will come upon the Rhodians (160-168). This section is perhaps related to the first in the oracle since it includes Rhodes as central to the final judgment of Rome (which will become a “street,” probably a reference to Rome becoming insignificant). The holy prince will gain control of the scepters of the world and Rome will fall (169-177). Various signs of the end are listed in 178-216. There are several breaks in the text, but the usually catastrophic “wrath of God” things are present. Of note is line 205, there will be a resurrection of the dead, the swift racing of the lame, the deaf will hear and the blind will see.

This is the least structured of the oracles and is probably a collection of various sources.  The work is Christian and probably is not based on any Jewish material.  As such, the Seventh Oracle represents the other end of the tangent begun in the earlier Jewish oracles. Christians placed prophecies in the mouth of a pagan oracle in order to give a universal validity to the claims of Christianity.

This oracle seems not only Christian, but in some ways Gnostic. Collins lists five allusions to Gnostic ideas but concludes that the presence of these elements do not make the book Gnostic.  In the same way earlier oracles drew on pagan mythology, so to this Christian oracle is drawing on Gnosticism (OTP 1:409).

  • Several European cites will be destroyed, Rhodes will be the first (1-6). The flood is briefly described (7-15).  This section is fragmentary, but makes Phrygia the location of Ararat as in 1 Enoch.A general oracle against the nations, although the focus is on Egypt (16-28).
  • A brief, fragmented description of a messiah figure (29-39). It is hard to get the sense of this prophecy since much is missing.  God entrusts his throne to someone from the house of David.  The angels sleep under his feet (33).  He is a “young shoot putting forth eyes from the root.” (38)
  • Various nations and cities are condemned (40-63). Colophon and Corinth are mentioned specifically as destroyed by the Roman Ares.
  • Christ’s baptism is described with a special emphasis on the people not recognizing him as their God when he came up from the water (64-75).
  • Sacrifice will be replaced by prayer, alms giving, and care for the poor (76-91).
  • Lines 91a-95 are a fragment which may continue the theme from the previous section, but there is not enough there to see this clearly.
  • Various nations and cities are condemned (96-116), including Sardina, Mygdonia, Macedonia and Rome, Thebes.
  • A “woe” against the “evil spirit sea,” which will be devoured by fire in the chaotic end of the world (118-131).
  • Those who falsely claim to be Hebrews and make money from prophecy will be destroyed (132-138).

After the third “circling of years” when the first ogdoad is seen, he will begat a “pure mind of men” and no one will plow a crooked row anymore (139-149). Ogdoad can refer to eight frog/snake gods worshiped at Hermopolis, Egypt, although this does not fit the context well.  Ogdoad is also a Gnostic concept relating to the aeons (Edwin Yamauchi, “The Gnostics and History” JETS 14 (1971): 29-40, 31). The word is used to describe a place in the Hermetic Discourse on the Eighth and Ninth:  “The Eighth or Ogdoad is described as the place or sphere where souls and angels continuously praise the Ninth with hymns; the Ninth or Ennead is the dwelling place of Nous or Divine Mind” (Ruth Majerick, “Discourse on the Eighth and Ninth” in ABD 2:210-211). It is possible this reference refers to Jesus in some kind of numeric wordplay, since the name Jesus Christ is often rendered 888. Finally, all people in this restored world will “eat dewy manna with white teeth” (148-149, cf. Revelation 2:17).

The oracle concludes with a confession of faith from the sibyl.  This is part of the sibylline formula: the pagan prophetess confesses faith in God and claims her oracles are true.

A series of oracles against nations follows (163-227, 286-360). Rome, Egypt, the Gauls, and the Ethiopians are listed for special condemnation in the first section, Asia and Europe in the second. The city of Corinth is singled out for special attention in 214-227. There are various exhortations interspersed in this section along with occasional returns to the theme of the coming enemy. These are consistently identified by Collins as “The Return of Nero” despite some being very vague and not at all clearly referring to the Nero myth. 214-227, for example, is a condemnation of Corinth and only very peripherally about Nero, if at all. That there is a short condemnation of arrogance (228-238) following this section may be related to the arrogance of the Roman emperors.

A long section praises the Jews as the people of God (238-285). This section looks forward to the time when Israel will once again be the “center of the world” and the world will come to Jerusalem to worship, including a prayer for the “fertile and luxurious land of Judea (328-332).

destroy-templeThe coming enemy of God is described again in 361-385. He is a matricide and devises evil schemes in his mind. He will conquer all the lands and like a wintery blast he will make war everywhere. His end comes when fire rains down on men from heaven and all war ceases. An exhortation is attached to this description, encouraging people (Rome) from all sorts of sexual sins presumably associated with Nero (matricide, pedophile, etc., 386-396).

The oracle describes the destruction of the temple by a great horde of illustrious men (397-413). The king who destroyed the temple is said to have died by the hand of the Immortal after he left the land, which is odd since Titus did not die in any unusual way.

A blessed man comes from the “expanses of heaven” with a scepter in his hand which he was given by God himself (414-433). He will return wealth to those from whom it was stolen and make the city of God shine as a brilliant light, more brilliant than the sun and moon. The temple will be rebuilt as an ornament and all the righteous will see it. Both the east and west will sing the glory of God; all the wretched will be judged.

In the context of judgment, the oracle turns against Babylon, the classic enemy of God (434-446). They had been the sole kingdom ruling the earth, but in the end they had to send to Rome for assistance. Catastrophic disasters will happen in those days (447-484): The seas will dry up, Roman ships will no longer sail (Revelation 18, the lament of the seaman). Apocalyptic signs include Locust, bloody war, and invasions over frozen rivers, wild animals attacking people, and weakness all over earth, moonless nights and a mist covering the whole world.

Egypt will be converted in the last days (448-511). People in Egypt will decide to build a temple to God in an attempt to worship God correctly, but it will be destroyed; God will therefore rain terrible judgments on the land. This may be a reference to the temple at Leontopolis (Collins OTP 1:405, note i4, but the prediction could be taken as eschatological as well).

The Oracle concludes with a terrible battle in the stars – the constellations themselves are destroyed and the sky becomes starless (512-531). This seems odd, but there may be a subtle condemnation of astrology here. It is possible judgment has come to such a point that the stars are no longer able to guide so it is as if they have gone away.

The Fifth Sibylline is eschatological, similar in many ways to book 3. There is a clear expectation of an enemy of God who will oppress the people and a savior sent from God to rescue his people. Collins considers this an example of Diaspora / Egyptian Judaism (OTP 1:390-391). As such it may be a guide to Jewish expectations in the first century with more to say about the context of Revelation than the ministry of Jesus. Still, the general eschatological outline (oppression, salvation via a messiah, judgment, rest) seems to be present here as well.

This Sibyl begins with a review of the history of “the Latin race” (1-51). The history becomes most detailed in line 28, “one who has fifty as an initial” becomes commander, this is Nero. He is an “athlete, charioteer, murderer and one who dares ten thousand things.” The history concludes with Hadrian (one who will have his name on the sea – the Adriatic, line 46) and Marcus Aurelius, a “most excellent, outstanding, dark-haired one.”  While in some cases this is cryptic, it is not impossible to figure out these historical references.

Nero or Joffery

This is not really Nero

Egypt faces destruction in the final days (52-92).From the east will come “a savage minded man, much bloodied and raving nonsense” (93-110). This king will conquer the west then turn toward Egypt and lay everything to waste. Only a third of life will remain for “wretched mortals” after this evil man conquers. Collins relates this paragraph to the Nero myth. While I cannot disagree with him, it is not at all obvious this evil man from the east is the same evil one as in 28f. Lines 137-154 are far more explicit in identifying Nero as the eschatological man of evil.The east will be destroyed (111-134). This section mentions places in Greece and Asia Minor; islands will sink and earthquakes will rip apart cities.

A godlike man comes from Rome (a Nero-like figure? 137-154). He will come from the Medes and Persians and will seize the Temple and destroy it, burning the citizens of the city. Despite the fact Nero died before the Temple was destroyed, he was the emperor who ordered Vespasian into Palestine in the first place. He is therefore blamed for destroying Jerusalem and the Temple.

As described by Collins, the Fourth Sibylline is a “political oracle” updated by a Jew in the late first century (OTP 1:381). Of special interest is the scheme of history the book presents: four kingdoms, a conflagration, then the resurrection and judgment. Since this is not a Christian work, we are reading a view of history and eschatology that may be used as context for New Testament studies, especially in describing messianic hopes during the ministry of Jesus.

madonnaandred200The Sibyl describes herself as speaking “unfailing truths” (1-5). This opening sets the prophecy compatible with the Old Testament in the mouth of a pagan prophetess. Despite being a pagan, the Sibyl condemns idolatry as an offense against the great God (6-23). God has comprehensive knowledge: “He sees all at once but is seen by no one himself” (12). Therefore, this oracle of ten generations is true. The righteous will receive great blessing from the Great God (24-39). The righteous are described in terms or behaviors: rejection of idolatry, sexual conduct, mockery of the foolishness of pagans.

Lines 40-48 form an introduction to the Ten Generations / Four Kingdoms. Men are slow to respond to God, but his judgment is coming nonetheless. Eventually God will enable pious men to serve him after the accomplishment of the tenth kingdom. The first kingdom is Assyria (49-53). The first six generations occur while Assyrians rule the world, from the time of the flood. The second kingdom is the Medes (54-64). They only rule for two generations. Their time will end when the Euphrates flows with blood and the Medes and Persians both flee over the great waters. The third kingdom is Persia, the greatest of the kingdoms (65-87). They will be overcome by Greece, although Greece itself will be in political chaos. This kingdom will last until the tenth generation. The fourth kingdom is the least described; many nations are listed as falling to the final kingdom, but no actual kingdom is mentioned in this section (88-101). Likely each line could be related to some battle or political movement in early Roman history.

The rise of Rome is detailed in (102-114), described as a “great Italian war” under which the whole world will serve. When an evil storm of war will come from Italy, Jerusalem will be destroyed (115-129). The invaders will commit repulsive murders in front of the temple. A leader of Rome will come from Syria and burn the Temple and slaughter many men and women (a reference to Titus). There will be a great earthquake which destroy Salamis and Paphos and flood Cyprus.

A series of cataclysmic signs are described which will occur after the fall of Jerusalem (130-151). Vesuvius is used as an example in 130-134; the wrath of the God of Heaven caused the mountain to explode (The eruption of Mt. Vesuvius and the destruction of Pompey may be in the background of the imagery of the trumpet judgments in Revelation 8. Wars and famine will occur throughout the world.

People in the last times will be “unworthy men” doing “unholy deeds (152-161). They are foolish and infantile; God is “gnashing his teeth in wrath” and will destroy them “at once in a great conflagration.” In the light of the imminent conflagration, the writer urges his readers to stop provoking God and seek forgiveness (162-170). Remarkably, Collins (or the editor of OTP 1:388) describes this section as “Conversion and Baptism” despite the fact baptism is not mentioned, nor is conversion to the Jewish faith. The earth will be destroyed in fire and a very great sign, with sword and trumpet, at the rising of the sun (171-178).

Finally, the Sibyl describes the resurrection of the dead (179-192). After the conflagration, God will “put to sleep” the fire and fashion bones from the ashes and “raise up mortals again.” This resurrection imagery is similar to Ezekiel 37 in that bodies are re-created from bones. People are raised to face judgment and will be assigned either to Tartarus and Gehenna for punishment or to the “delightful and pleasant light of the sun.”

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