The New Perspective on Paul: What Was the Old Perspective?

Before examining the challenge of the new Perspective on Paul, it is important to have some understanding of what the traditional on Paul view is. At the foundation of Sanders’ critique of the standard view of Paul is that Luther read Paul through the lens of his own struggle with sin and his battle with the Pelagian / semi-Pelagian Roman Catholic Church which claimed one could earn merit before God by preforming good deeds.

Luther Nailing ThesesI will start with the observation that I find much of what is written on the traditional view is more or less Systematic Theology with respect to method. This is not necessarily a bad; Luther and Calvin simply did not “do biblical theology” quite the same way it is done today. They were simply unable to examine the historical and cultural background to Pauline literature. They did in fact return to the text of Scripture, but they did so in order to serve a developing theological reformation. In addition, they were waging a theological (and political) battle. For two centuries following the Reformation, church scholars were busy shoring up the theological edifice of the Reformation and not particularly interested in “what Paul really meant.”

DSSAnother factor is the vast wealth of material modern scholarship has available for study as compared to even the last century. A great deal of literary evidence from the Second Temple Period has been published in the last fifty that was unknown to the Reformers or anyone studying Paul prior to E. P. Sanders. The Dead Sea Scrolls are an obvious example, but the publication of Charlesworth’s two volumes on the Old Testament Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha have allowed students of Paul to read Jewish texts that were popular when Paul wrote his letters. All of that literary evidence needs to be read and evaluated as potential background to Paul’s letters.

With this in mind, I want to use Stephen Westerholm seven-point summary of what he calls the “Lutheran” Paul. He arrives at these points after examining the Pauline theology of Augustine, Luther, Calvin and Wesley. I summarize his points here and offer some commentary.

  1. Human nature was created good, but has become corrupted by sin and is unable to please the Creator. This entails the idea that all those who are in Adam are also in his sin. As Romans 5 clearly indicates, Adam’s sin is somehow imputed to his descendants so that all humans have a sinful nature which separates them from a holy God.
  2. Humans must therefore be “justified by divine grace” through faith, apart from works. This is the cornerstone of the Reformation: since humans do not merit salvation, they can only be saved by a sovereign act of a gracious God.
  3. This justification by faith leaves humans with nothing to boast before God. A text like Eph 2:8-9 shows that Paul’s view was that no person could stand before God as their judge and claim to have done anything to merit salvation, either before or after they were justified.
  4. Even though humans are justified by God’s grace, they are still expected to do good works. There is an unfortunate misunderstanding that some theologians in the reformed tradition think that after justification, a believer may sin all they want. It is clear from Paul’s letters that he expects believers to behave in a certain way, but does he ever threaten them with the loss of salvation?
  5. The Law was given to awaken the awareness of sin in humans. The role of the Jewish law is the burden of Galatians. Paul argues there that the believer is not required to keep the Law since it only functioned as a guide until God acted decisively in Jesus.
  6. Sin is still a reality in the life of the believer. Westerholm comments that there is a different in the way Wesley or Luther deal with the problem of sin, nevertheless they recognize that humans still sin even after they are justified before God.
  7. Divine grace may or may not be irresistible. Again, this varies between Luther / Calvin and Wesley. The very act of having faith may constitute a “work” which can be seen as a human contribution to salvation.

For the most part, I read this list and want to shout “Amen!” after the first five points, and I have some strong opinions on the last two where there is divergence in the various streams of the Reformation. These theological points, when properly defined, are a solid theological response to the growing influence of Pelagianism in the church in the sixteenth century (or the early twenty-first century for that matter). With respect to the first five points, I believe I could support each statement with enough proof-texts in Paul to show that this general outline is “Pauline.”

The challenge of the New Perspective is to start with the text in the proper historical climate. Is it possible that this tight outline of systematic theology is not what Paul intended at all?

Bibliography: Stephen Westerholm, Perspectives Old and New on Paul: The “Lutheran” Paul and his Critics (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2004), 88-97.

6 thoughts on “The New Perspective on Paul: What Was the Old Perspective?

  1. As to your last q., Phillip, I’d have to say “yes”, not what he intended. Of course I/we don’t know much of his thinking about things on which he did not write, except by inference or guessing. So maybe he had things pretty logically lined up in his mind, but from his writing alone, one has to question if he was a very thoroughly systematic and/or careful thinker (and user of metaphor and precise wording). I’d say much stronger on synthesis and creativity and much weaker on tight argument.

    And that leads to my other q.: Does the NP perspective take on at all, or in any prominent way, the issues of authority that I think are critical in Old vs. New and, of course, in biblical interpretation and theology overall? More specifically, is Paul still considered an “apostolic” authority equivalent to “The Twelve”, who we know precious little about, as far as their actual theology, unless one assumes we get some in 1 Peter (and/or 2 Pet.), which I don’t; or in perhaps the Johannine lit. (again, I think the evidence is VERY thin that we do). Or finally, that we get such authority indirectly in the Gospels, Acts, or maybe James, Jude, etc. (similar problems… no real evidentiary basis, in my view, that we get much Jerusalem-based, apostolic viewpoint, “straight”, before filtering by Luke, particularly, and the other Evangelists).

    So, IF Paul does have equivalent authority, or some kind of divine authority, on what basis does the NP evidence it for him? His visions/revelations alone? The “right hand of fellowship” from the Jeru. leaders, or supposed “dividing of mission fields”? Or miracle-working power? Or ??? Thanks.

  2. Overall this is very interesting. As for the last question, I would have to answer with yes and no. Yes because Paul’s whole mission was to bring the good news to the Gentiles (Long, p35). With this in mind, it’s probable that he could have had a more loose outline of reaching to all different sorts of people. The no part would be that Paul was a strong tongued believer, as he would not be afraid of what he had to say. Why I would say that is because he got into trouble and suffered hardships with: beatings, forty lashes minus one, shipwrecked, stoned, spent day and night in open sea, have gone without sleep, imprisoned, and even escaped arrest by being lowered in a basket over a wall (2 Corinthians 11:23-33).

    Otherwise I think this was an interesting and insightful blog. I find these points really riveting as the basis of evangelizing. I do find point four sad as people still believe that they could lose salvation if they don’t do good works. Jesus didn’t die for us just for us to keep making it up to Him in the end. He did it because God loves us. Period. Like a parent to a child, He loves us unconditionally without needing anything in return (John 3:16-19 (I know, cliche, but it’s the absolute truth)).

  3. In discussions concerning the interpretation of Paul’s writings, it’s really important to try and embrace a fresh perspective known as the New Perspective on Paul. This approach challenges already established ideas but also brings some other valuable insights that can significantly help our understanding of Paul’s teachings. Here are some interesting reasons why we should be open to giving the New Perspective on Paul a fair chance. Firstly, the New Perspective emphasizes the significance of comprehending the historical and cultural context in which Paul lived. By looking into the time and place he lived in and during, we gain a better and new insight into what he genuinely meant when he wrote his letters. This historical awareness is something we can use to help us find the true meaning of his messages.

    Secondly, modern scholars have found ancient writings that were likely familiar to Paul. These discoveries provide us with a clearer view of the intellectual and religious landscape of his era. Such insights help and allow us to grasp the issues and debates that were prevalent during his time. Furthermore, the New Perspective encourages us to reevaluate some longstanding interpretations. For instance, it invites us to reconsider the notion that Paul was primarily opposing a specific way of earning favor with God. Instead, this perspective suggests that he might have been addressing a broader spectrum of concerns and issues within the early Christian communities.

    Another compelling aspect of the New Perspective is its potential to build better relations among people from diverse backgrounds and belief systems. By studying how Paul attempted to unite different groups within his own context, we can draw lessons on promoting harmony and understanding in today’s multicultural world. Again, this perspective helps us to examine Paul’s words more closely. It highlights the complexity of his ideas and encourages us to move beyond simplistic interpretations, which would help in providing a more comprehensive understanding of his teachings. Embracing the New Perspective on Paul does not require us to abandon our core beliefs, such as the concept of salvation by faith and God’s grace. Instead, it complements and enriches our theological framework by offering a more deep and contextually aware interpretation.

  4. The Old Perspective on Paul places a significant emphasis on the Jewish context in which Paul lived and wrote. It argues that Paul’s primary concern was combating legalism within Judaism, not the works-based righteousness often associated with contemporary Christianity. According to this view, Paul was not rejecting works entirely but was critiquing their misuse as a means of salvation. A key concept in the Old Perspective is “covenantal nomism.” This term suggests that Jews believed they were included in God’s covenant through birth (nomism) but needed to maintain their status through obedience to the law. Paul’s mission, from this perspective, was to show that faith in Christ was the new way of being included in the covenant, replacing adherence to the Mosaic law.

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