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D. C. Duling argues at length that this Solomonic magical text was written in Greek, likely from Alexandria in the third century A.D. (OTP 1:940-943), although earlier scholarship argued for a much later date. There is no clear evidence of an earlier Hebrew version. As Duling concludes, “native language of the writer of the Testament of Solomon as a testament was Koine Greek” (OTP 1:939). Although the Testament is clearly a fantasy, the Greek Dialogue of Timothy and Aquila (c. 400 A.D.) quoted it as authentic. Despite the late date, McCown argued in his extensive study of the Testament that it “comes to be of assistance in reconstructing the thought world of the Palestinian Jew in the first century of our era” (McCown, Testament, 3).

Image result for testament of solomon demonsThe format of the bulk of the book is a series of “interviews” with demons. They are forced to tell Solomon their name, where they live, and their activities, along with the way in which they can be “thwarted,” or cast out, captured, imprisoned, etc. Many times this can be done only by invoking an angel whose role it is to deal with that specific demon.

The book is really a catalog of afflictions – one may have looked up their particular suffering and they would find a remedy, or at least an angel to invoke who may have a remedy. The “form” of these descriptions is fairly consistent. First, the demon is forced to give a description of its origin and zodiac information along with the malady it causes. Then the method of expulsion is given. Solomon then commands the demon to participate in the building of the temple in some supernatural way (cutting stones, moving pillars, etc.)

The book is a valuable source for the understanding of magic and demons, although it is very difficult to know how much of this material goes back to the first century. Certainly there are several elements in the book which are parallel to the New Testament, especially in the use of so-called power words and incantations. Jesus does not use anything like Solomon does in this text, nor do the apostles when they cast out demons in the name of Jesus.

However, when the sons of Sceva attempt to use the name of Jesus and Paul as a power word to control a demon, they are soundly beaten by the possessed man (Acts 19:13-16). In the same context, those who practiced sorcery burnt their valuable scrolls (19:17-20). In Acts 19:17 we are told the name of Jesus was held in high honor – perhaps a reference to Jesus becoming associated with the miraculous.

The Testament of Solomon does NOT reflect actual hidden knowledge about real demons and should not be read as a manual for casting out demons. Despite the misunderstandings of this book published by esoteric teachers (especially in blogs and YouTube), the Testament of Solomon reflects the worldview of the first century, not actual reality.

Like most of this collection, the Testament of Gad begins with an expansion of the Joseph story. Although there is virtually nothing about Gad known from the Hebrew Bible other than a notice he was Bilhah’s son (Gen 30:11). Although his name means “good fortune,” he describes himself as a brave warrior who was able to pursue and crush any wild animal (1:3), perhaps an allusion to David as a shepherd who killed a lion and a bear. The content of the Testament does not focus on bravery, but rather hatred.

Image result for david kills a lionThe young Joseph tells his father the sons of Bilhah and Zilpah are eating the best animals from the flock against the advice of Judah and Reuben. Gad claims the animal he ate had been rescued from a bear, and as going to die anyway.  He held a grudge against Joseph for this and wanted to kill him (chapter 2).  God punished Gad for his hatred and he developed a disease of his liver because of his hatred and might have died if Jacob had not prayed for him (5:9-11).

Gad uses this to teach his children to show justice and mercy to all and never to hate (chapters 2-3). Hatred is the real evil since it makes man a slave (4:4).  Hatred collaborates with envy, causing a man to desire to kill (4:5-6).

Testament of Gad 5:1-2 Hatred is evil, since it continually consorts with lying, speaking against the truth; it makes small things big, turns light into darkness, says that the sweet is bitter, teaches slander, conflict, violence, and all manner of greed; it fills the heart with diabolical venom. I tell you this, my children, from experience, so that you might escape hatred and cling to love of the Lord.

Hatred, Gad says, teaches all manner of sin (5:1). The antidote for hatred is love (chapter 6).   One must love in “deed, word, and inward thought” (6:1).  This idea of sincerity of love is similar to Romans 12:9.  This parallel is made even more clear with a condemnation of vengeance (6:6-7, 7:1-7, cf. Rom. 12:17-21). One is to pray for the one that prospers more (7:1), even if that prosperity comes via an evil scheme (7:4). Gad alludes to Esau as an example of this, although it is not clear from Genesis that Esau became wealthy by “being evil.” Since Jacob did scheme and manipulate in order to become wealthy, this is an example of a scriptural expansion which glorifies the patriarch of Israel (Jacob) while vilifying the outsider (Esau).

There is no mini-apocalypse in this testament, only a brief line in 8:1 which commands the children to honor Judah and Levi since through God will “raise up a savior” (cf. T.Naph 8:2).

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