Eating the Little Scroll – Revelation 10:8-11

The mighty angel held a little scroll in his hand (10:2). John is commanded to take this scroll and eat it (10:8-11).  (See also, Books in Apocalyptic.)

Is this little scroll related to the seven-sealed scroll in Revelation 5? In Revelation 5 the Lamb was given a seven-sealed scroll (βίβλος); this is a little scroll (βιβλαρίδιον and βλαρίδιον, the diminutive of βίβλος), although in 10:8 John uses βίβλος for this scroll (in some manuscripts βιβλαρίδιον appears). Beale thinks there is enough similarity to enable the reader to see the scroll as not a “totally different kind of book” from chapter 5, “but only one on a smaller scale… John wants to underscore the fact that this is a “little book” in comparison to the big book of ch. 5, and that it is modeled on that larger book” (Revelation, 545). In both cases the scroll is in the right hand and in both cases, someone takes the scroll from the hand.

domitian holding a scrollThere are, however, serious differences between the two scrolls. The scroll in chapter 5 is written on both sides, sealed with seven seals, and given to the Lamb of God who is the only person in all of creation with the authority to open the scroll.  The content of the scroll is Revelation 6:1-8:1, the seven seals. In Revelation 10, the scroll is already open, and the content of the scroll seems to be the word of God John will prophesy against the nations (v. 11). The identity of the mighty angel is important, since Beale argue the angel is Christ, he can see this scroll as the same: it was given to the Lamb, who opened the scroll, then passed it along to John to reveal to the nations.

Not every scroll in Revelation needs to be the same scroll. Scrolls appear often in Revelation (23 times). In Revelation 1:1 John is commanded to write into a scroll the message to the seven churches. This is clearly not the same scroll as the two-sided scroll in Revelation 5 or this little scroll in chapter 10. Nor are these scrolls the same as the “book of life” in Revelation 20:12.

Eating the scroll is a clear allusion to Ezekiel 2:9-3:3.

Ezekiel 2:9-3:3 Then I looked, and I saw a hand stretched out to me. In it was a scroll, 10 which he unrolled before me. On both sides of it were written words of lament and mourning and woe. 3:1 And he said to me, “Son of man, eat what is before you, eat this scroll; then go and speak to the house of Israel.” 2 So I opened my mouth, and he gave me the scroll to eat.  3 Then he said to me, “Son of man, eat this scroll I am giving you and fill your stomach with it.” So I ate it, and it tasted as sweet as honey in my mouth.

Ezekiel’s first vision commissions him as a prophet. After seeing a revelation of the glory of God, he is shown a scroll written on both sides and he is told to eat it the scroll. Like Revelation 10, the scroll is “as sweet as honey.” Despite the words of lament and mourning, Ezekiel’s scroll does not turn his stomach bitter. He does have a bitter attitude toward his calling, “I went in bitterness (מַר) in the heat of my spirit” (3:14, the bitterness is omitted in the LXX).  Although the word was sweet as honey to Ezekiel, the message was difficult. This is enough to convince Beale Ezekiel also experiences “sweet as honey” followed by bitterness.

What is the content of this little scroll? There are various attempts in the commentaries to make the content of this scroll the ensuing chapters of Revelation, but this overlooks the function of eating a scroll in Ezekiel. In Ezekiel, the scroll represented God commissioning the prophet to speak his words to God’s people. In Revelation 10:11, after he eats the scroll John is commissioned: “You must again prophesy about many peoples and nations and languages and kings” (ESV).

It is possible to translate the angel’s words as “against the nations,” the use of ἐπί and dative case may reflect the “negative apocalyptic attitude toward the ungodly nations of the world” (Aune 2:773; (BDAG §12). The more neutral “about” (NRSV, ESV, NIV) is possible (BDAG §8). For Aune, the negative sense “against” is “confirmed by the negative character of the Christian witness” in passages like Matthew 10:18, Luke 12:11 and 21:12 in which the disciples are warned they will be witnesses against rulers (ἐπί + dative; Aune 2:574). Beale agrees, “the accent is on judgment of the unrepentant” (554).

It is perhaps significant the next chapter describes the activity of two witnesses who indeed prophesy against the nations and are killed on account of their testimony.

What are the Seven Thunders in Revelation 10?

When the mighty angel speaks, his words are like the roar of a lion and he is answered by “the seven thunders.” The angel speaks, John hears the response from the seven thunders, but he is forbidden to write these words. Why are the words of this mighty not recorded? Possibly this means the angel’s words were unintelligible (2 Cor 12:4; Betz, TDNT 9:296).

Mighty Angel William BlakeThe “roar” of the Lord is a somewhat common motif in the Old Testament. Just prior to Moses receiving the Law at Mount Sinai, the people gather around the foot of the mountain and witness thunders (plural) and lightning as well as a “very loud trumpet blast” (Exodus 19:16). Later Rabbinic literature interpreted these thunders as the voice of God. The voice was so loud all the people of the world heard the voice, and “God’s voice split up into 70 voices acc. to the 70 languages of the earth, so that each people could hear it in its own tongue” (Betz, TDNT, 9: 288). Psalm 29:3-9 a seven-fold description of the voice of God as thunder, although the word “voice” is not there seven times. There is a rabbinic tradition that the voice of God was heard as seen thunders on Mt. Sinai (Exod. Rab. 28:6, cf. 5:9.

Since the lion of Judah appears in Revelation 5:5, perhaps a voice like thunder is drawn from the metaphor of the thunderous voice of a lion. For example, Amos 1:2 begins with the words, “The LORD roars from Zion and thunders from Jerusalem.” Joe alludes to this text: The Lord “will roar from Zion and thunder from Jerusalem” (3:16). The voice of God as thunder is common in other apocalyptic literature as well, “the One who thunders on high” (Sibylline Oracles 5.302). In 4 Ezra 16.10, the Lord is like a hungry lion who thunders and terrifies everyone.

Aune suggests thunder is a common “metaphor for articulate speech by supernatural beings” in both Jewish apocalyptic and Greek magical papyri (2:560). In Sibylline Oracles 5.344–345, “It will be possible to hear a heavenly crash of thunder, the voice of God throughout broad heaven above.” The “voice of the thunder” and the light of the lightning” are kept in the heavens (1 Enoch 69.23). In 2 Enoch 39.7 Enoch claims he has “heard the LORD speaking like loud thunder.” In the mystical visions of 3 Enoch, the writer “saw thunders and voices roaring in the midst of flames of fire” (3 Enoch 42.5)

In an example of a heavenly tour, Enoch is shown the secrets of the thunders:

1 Enoch 59:1-3 In those days, my eyes saw the mysteries of lightnings, and of lights, and their judgments; they flash lights for a blessing or a curse, according to the will of the Lord of the Spirits. 2 And there I (also) saw the secrets of the thunder and the secrets of (how when) it resounds in the heights of heaven its voice is heard (in) the earthly dwellings. He showed me whether the sound of the thunder is for peace and blessing or for a curse, according to the word of the Lord of the Spirits. 3 After that, all the mysteries of the lights and lightnings were shown to me (that) they glow with light for blessing and for contentment.

John prepared to write the content of the words spoken by the thunders but a “voice from heaven” prevents him. He is told to seal up the vision and not write it down. In Daniel 12:9 Daniel could not understand the angel’s explanation of his vision and he is told “the words are to remain secret and sealed until the time of the end.” On the other hand, Enoch was permitted to write down “the rumble of the thunder and the lightning” (2 Enoch 40.9).

Keeping secrets is common in Jewish apocalyptic literature. In 1 Enoch 49, for example, Enoch is shown “all the secrets in heaven.” The reason for this, as Aune suggests is that the visionary alone knows the secrets. This makes him wise and different than the reader.  It was a mark of authenticity to hold back a little revelation from the readers, if you gave it all then perhaps there were skeptics.

What did the seven thunders say?  Bousset suggested John was given another series of plague judgments like the seals, trumpets, and bowls, and that he was told not to record this series (cited by Aune 2:5620). This is certainly possible, and if so, indicates that there will be more judgements during the tribulation happening than could expected after reading Revelation. Leviticus 26 has four seven-fold plagues as a part of the curses and blessings in Leviticus (26:18, 21, 23, and 27). This would mean there were four sets of seven judgments, one set was set aside. Caird suggested the reason John is told not to record the content of the visions is because God will cancel these judgments out of his grace and mercy (Caird, 126-127). But as Beale points out, “seal up” does not have the same sense as “cancel” (Beale 535).

Who is the Angel in Revelation 10:1-4?

Mighty Angel, 17th centuryThe mighty angel in Revelation 10 alludes to several passages in the Old Testament which describe angelic beings.

John does not name this angelic being, although some speculate the angel is Gabriel, primarily because the name Gabriel means “mighty one” (גִּבּוֹר gibbôr; Charles 1:258-259). It is not necessary to make the connection to Gabriel, although there are certainly parallels in Revelation 10 to Daniel. Gabriel is mentioned twice in Daniel, both times he is delivering a message to Daniel from God. Gabriel also appears twice in Luke in a similar role, announcing to Mary she is pregnant.

The physical description of this angel evokes a theophany from the Hebrew Bible.

The angel is “robed in a cloud.” A cloud is often associated with the glory of God. The image of a cloud appears in Revelation as a description of heaven (11:12) and the place where “something like a son of man” sits before he comes as judge, a reference to Jesus Christ (14:14-16). In Exodus 14:19 the angel of God traveled in front and behind Israel’s army along with a “pillar of cloud.” When Solomon installed the Ark of the Covenant in the Temple, the place was filled with a cloud, representing the glory of God (1 Kings 8:10; 2 Chron 5:14). Ezekiel sees this cloud depart the Temple before the Temple is destroyed (Ezek 10:4-5). At the transfiguration Jesus is covered in a bright cloud (Matt 17:5).

Angelic beings clothed in a cloud are rare in apocalyptic literature. In 3 Enoch God’s glory is associated with clouds. For example, “the clouds that encircle the throne of glory” (3 Enoch 22C.4) and describing the throne room, “those who say “Blessed” are encircled by bright clouds” (34:2). In Fourth Ezra’s Eagle vision, the “spread his wings over all the earth, and all the winds of heaven blew upon him, and the clouds were gathered about him” (4 Ezra 11.2). In the Testament of Abraham 15 (A) the angel Michael demonstrates his power to Abraham by enveloping him in a cloud. In Mark 16:5 the angel who greeted the women at the empty tomb were wrapped in white robes

The angel has a “rainbow above his head.” Like a cloud, rainbows are also associated with the glory of God, although the two places in scripture where a rainbow is associated with God it is a description of his throne or location. Aune takes ἶρις is a halo of light (2:557). The image is drawn from Ezekiel’s throne room vision in which he sees something “like the appearance of a rainbow in the clouds on a rainy day, so was the radiance around him” (Ezek 1:28). Revelation 4:3 alluded to Ezekiel’s vision, “a rainbow, resembling an emerald, encircled the throne.”

The angel’s face is “like the sun.” Revelation 1:6 described as having a face shining like the sun, a possible allusion to the angelic being in Daniel 10:6, although the angelic being in Daniel has a face like lightening and his eyes were like flaming torches. Both Moses (Exod 34:30) and Jesus are described as having radiant faces; at the Transfiguration Jesus’s face “shone like the sun” (Matt 17:2)

“His legs were like fiery pillars.” This is literally feet (πούς). Most modern translations translate the word as legs since it is odd to describe feet as pillars. Aune gives several examples of feet for legs in contemporary Greek (Revelation, 2:548-549). The cherubim in Ezekiel 1:7 have straight legs like “burnished bronze.”

The angel is standing with one foot on land and one foot on the sea. This is important because the beasts in Revelation 13 come from both the land and the sea. God is demonstrating his sovereignty over both. This also corresponds to the oath he makes in verse 6, swearing by both the land and the sea.

Colossus of Rhodes

David Aune suggests this angelic being has some similarity to the Colossus of Rhodes (2:556-557).  The Colossus was a 105-foot-tall bronze statue that was built about 280 B. C. It was placed in a promontory overlooking the harbor at Rhodes and was known as one of the “seven wonders” of the ancient world. The statue was of Helios, a sun-god that was worshiped primarily in Rhodes (which is an island, 420 square miles, with three city states named after the three sons of Helios.)

The image of a “halo / rainbow” and “fire” do evoke the memory of this well-known statue.  It is possible that the statue had this right-handed lifted towards heaven, as the angel in this passage does. The Colossus was destroyed by an earthquake in 224 B. C.  It broke off at the knees, and although it was looted for bronze, pieces were still visible during the first century. The fact the Colossus was destroyed some 275 years prior to the writing of Revelation creates a problem for Aune’s suggestion the great wonder of the world influenced this description.

Rather than the Colossus of Rhodes, the image of a mighty angel is drawn from Old Testament descriptions of God’s glory, his throne room and other mighty angels. In fact, as Greg Beale suggests, “may be more than an angel” and that John’s use of this imagery “christological, if not divine” (Revelation, 522, 524). The description of the mighty angel in Revelation 10 reads the mighty angels in the Old Testament through the lens of Jesus.

 

Why Do People Refuse to Repent? Revelation 9:20-21

Sins of Jezebel (1953)After the devastation of the first six of the trumpets, the people of the earth do not repent of their idolatry (Revelation 9:20-21). This description of idolatry is consistent with the Old Testament, idols are things crafted by men that cannot do anything (Ps 115:5-7; 1 Cor 10:20). Standing on the foundation of texts like Deuteronomy 32:17, Revelation 9:20 says the worship of idols is the worship of demons. This is certainly the same view of idolatry as other Second Temple Jewish literature:

1 Enoch 99.6–7 “Again I swear to you, you sinners, for sin has been prepared for the day of unceasing blood. 7 (And those) who worship stones, and those who carve images of gold and of silver and of wood and of clay, and those who worship evil spirits and demons, and all kinds of idols not according to knowledge, they shall get no manner of help in them.

Testament of Judah 23.1 “My grief is great, my children, on account of the licentiousness and witchcraft and idolatry that you practice contrary to the kingship, following ventriloquists, omen dispensers, and demons of deceit.

The people of the earth do not repent of any of their offenses: murders, magic arts, sexual immorality, and thefts.” Three of these four are in the ten commandments (murder, adultery, and theft). The fourth, “magical arts” is sometimes translated “sorcery” (φάρμακον). Although this particular offense seems out of place alongside three of the Ten Commandments, the related φάρμακος describes the Egyptian magicians in the Septuagint (Exod 7:11; 9:11). Sorcerers or magicians are among those consigned to the Lake of Fire in Revelation 21:8 and 22:15.

The Old Testament often associated sorcery and idolatry. For example, 2 Kings 9:22, Jehu says there can be no peace in Israel because of the many “the whorings and the sorceries of your mother Jezebel.” Magicians are associated with sexual immorality in some Second Temple literature. For example, in the Testament of Reuben 4.9 Egyptian woman used magicians and potions for him to entrap Joseph sexually.

In the Temple Scroll idolatry and magic are abominations which will result in exile:

11Q19 Col. lx:17-20 Among you there should not be found anyone who makes his son or his daughter pass 18 through fire, anyone who practices divination, astrologers, sorcerers, wizards, anyone who performs incantations, anyone who consults a spirit 19 or oracles or anyone who questions the dead; because all those who do these things are an abomination to me. 20 And owing to these abominations I shall dispossess them before you.

I suggest the immediate context of idolatry and sexual immorality is participation in festivals and banquets honoring Roman gods, perhaps even the imperial cult. The letters to the seven churches often warned believers to repent (2:5 (2x); 2:16; 2:21, 22; 3:3; 3:19). In the case of Thyatira (2:18-28), the use of Jezebel clearly associates idolatry and immorality, as in 2 Kings 9:22, “the whorings and the sorceries of your mother Jezebel.”

That the people of the earth refuse to repent after the sixth trumpet is consistent with the sixth seal. Rather than repent, the people of the earth call on the rocks and mountains to hide them from the wrath of the Lamb. Greg Beale draws a parallel to the conclusion of the plagues in Egypt, God hardened the heart of Pharaoh (Revelation, 517). He argues there is a “theological purpose” to these warnings, God is providing sufficient opportunities for repentance so that he may demonstrate his sovereignty and justice when he finally judges those who are not sealed by God when the seventh trumpet sounds (11:18).

Like the plagues on the Egyptians in Exodus, the plagues in Revelation 7-9 are not evangelistic. They are fair warnings by the sovereign God that final judgment is coming soon even if the ones who are warned are have no interested in repenting.

The Sixth Trumpet:  An Uncountable Army – Revelation 9:13-21

When the angel sounds the sixth trumpet a voice from the golden altar commands the angel to release the four angels who have been bound at the great River Euphrates. These four angels command a massive army which will kill one-third of mankind.

Clone Warriors

Who are these four bound angels appointed for this task? In Revelation 7:1 four angels were holding back the four winds. Aune thinks Revelation 7:1 and 9:13 refer to the same four angels (2:537), Charles does not (1:250). Since these angels are bound at the Euphrates River, they seem to be a different set of four than 7:1. Revelation does not identify these angels and it is unlikely they are four archangels, Michael, Gabriel, Suriel, and Uriel (1 Enoch 20:1).

There are a few references to destroying angels in Second Temple apocalyptic, although there are no examples of four angles appointed for the task.  First Enoch 66:1 refers to “the angels of punishment who are prepared to come and release all the powers of the waters which are underground to become judgment and destruction unto all who live and dwell upon the earth.”

The Euphrates River is to the north and east of Jerusalem and many of Israel’s enemies in the Old Testament came from the east. Both Assyria and Babylon came from beyond the Euphrates River. After the exile Judea was controlled by the Ptolemies in Egypt to the south and the Seleucids in Syria to the north.

From the perspective of the late first century, the Euphrates could refer to eastern edge of the Roman empire. The Parthian empire controlled the east and Rome was concerned to control their eastern frontier against them. Since the Parthians were fierce warriors who used horseman in battle, many commentators interpret this large cavalry as a reference to the Parthians. Sibylline Oracles 14.66 refer to the “arrow-shooting Parthians of the deep-flowing Euphrates.”

The Sibylline Oracles refer to the Parthians several times. “Then the strife of war being aroused will come to the west, and the fugitive from Rome will also come, brandishing a great spear, having crossed the Euphrates with many myriads” (Sib. Or. 4.137–139). In 13.122–124 the “fugitive of Rome” crosses the Euphrates “with many myriads, who will burn you down and dispose everything badly.”

The size of the army is enormous, “twice ten thousand times ten thousand” (δισμυριάδες μυριάδων). Since the word myriad (μυριάς) refers to a very large, imprecise number (BDAG), Aune suggest the phrase be translated as “uncountable” (Aune 2:539). Psalm 68:17 describes an angelic army in similar terms, “The chariots of God are tens of thousands and thousands of thousands.” In 4 Ezra 13:5, Ezra sees “an innumerable multitude of men were gathered together from the four winds of heaven to make war against the man who came up out of the sea.” The man from the sea is a messianic figure based on Daniel 7.

Although popular prophecy teachers often associate this large number with China, a massive empire to the east of modern Israel, that is not at all the point of this massive uncountable army. A better explanation is to see this army as a demonic horde. The description of these demonic soldiers is intentionally horrifying:

Their breastplates were fiery red, dark blue, and yellow as sulfur. The breastplate probably refers only to the riders, there are many examples of breastplates for horses.

The heads of the horses resembled the heads of lions. A horse is not a terrifying animal, but a horse-sized animal with a head of a lion certainly is! Aune compares this lion-headed horse with “the widely distributed depictions of the Chimaera” (Aune 2:540).

Out of their mouths came fire, smoke and sulfur. Fire-breathing creatures are associated with judgement in early Jewish texts. For example, in Job 41:19 Leviathan breathed fire. Beale suggests these creatures allude Job’s description of Leviathan, associating these beasts “with Satan and his deceptive work” (515).  Fourth Ezra 13 the messianic figure breaths fire on the uncountable multitude utterly destroying them.

4 Ezra 13.8-11 After this I looked, and behold, all who had gathered together against him, to wage war with him, were much afraid, yet dared to fight. 9 And behold, when he saw the onrush of the approaching multitude, he neither lifted his hand nor held a spear or any weapon of war; 10 but I saw only how he sent forth from his mouth as it were a stream of fire, and from his lips a flaming breath, and from his tongue he shot forth a storm of sparks. 11 All these were mingled together, the stream of fire and the flaming breath and the great storm, and fell on the onrushing multitude which was prepared to fight, and burned them all up, so that suddenly nothing was seen of the innumerable multitude but only the dust of ashes and the smell of smoke.

Their tails were like snakes, having heads with which they inflict injury. Like the locust in Revelation 9:1-11, the tails of these beasts are deadly.

As Greg Beale suggests, “the sixth trumpet intensifies and develops further the woe of the fifth” (Revelation, 513). The demonic oppression in the fifth trumpet had the power to torment, but not kill. This sixth trumpet kills one-third of the earth. Neither this destructive army nor the locust in the fifth trumpet refer to modern warfare or modern nations. They depict terrifying demonic oppression.

Who is Abaddon? Revelation 9:11

The last line of John’s description of the demonic locust rising from the bottomless pit refers to their king, Abaddon in Hebrew or Apollyon in Greek. Both words mean Destroyer.

Although Proverbs 30:27 states the locust have no king, there is a reference to the king of the locust in LXX Amos 7:1. The Hebrew reads “after the king’s mowing” although translating the final three words of 7:1 is difficult since the Hebrew גֵּז is rare. The Septuagint translation of Amos 7:1 is considerably different than the Hebrew Bible: “Thus the Lord God showed me and look, the offspring of locusts is coming early, and look, one locust is Agag, the king” (LES2). The name Agag is associated with the Amalekites; in 1 Sam 15 Saul was command to attack Agag, king of the Amalekites.

This translation understands the Greek Γώγ, Gog, as Agag. The NET of the Septuagint translates this as “Gog, their king.” It is likely the translator read the Hebrew word גֵּז as Gog (גּוֹג). The same confusion appears in the LXX of Numbers 24:7, the king is Agag but the LXX has Gog. While it is tantalizing to hear an echo of Ezekiel 38-39 and a foreshadowing of Revelation 20:8, the evidence that Gog is the king of the locust is thin.

The name Abaddon appears only here in Revelation, although the word אֲבַדּוֹן is found in the Hebrew Bible a few times with reference to the abode of the dead, in parallel with Sheol (Job 26:6; Prov 15:11). In Job 31:12 it is also a location: “a fire that consumes as far as Abaddon.” Later rabbinic literature used the term for the place of punishment for the wicked (Grether, “Abaddon,” ABD 1:6).

The name is found in several fragmentary Dead Sea Scrolls as a location of the dead (the pot, sheol, etc.)

1QHa Col. xi:19-20 I thank you, Lord, because you saved my life from the pit, and from the Sheol of Abaddon 20 have lifted me up to an everlasting height, so that I can walk on a boundless plain.

1QHa Col. xi:32 The torrents of Belial break into Abaddon. The schemers of the deep howl at the din of those extracting mud.

4Q432 Frag. 4 i:4 [And when they rush forth, Sheo]l [and Abaddon open; all the arrows of] 5 [the p]it [make their voice heard] while going down [to the abyss; and the gates of Sheol] «open» 6 [for al]l […] the deed[s of the serpent.

4Q504 Frags. 1–2 viir:7 the earth and all its schemers [… the] 8 great [abyss], Abaddon, the water and all that there [is in it …]  9 all its creatures, always, for centuries [eternal. Amen. Amen.]

In Revelation 9:11Abaddon is not a location but rather the “king of the locust.” In Greek, the name of the king is Apollyon, the destroyer. The Greek is related to the word ἀπολλύναι, “to destroy” but also to the name Apollo (Charles, 1:246). David Aune suggests an allusion to Nero since he claimed to be Apollo and was “identified with Belial in some early Jewish literature” (Aune, 2:535).

However, Beale suggests Abaddon/Apollyon refers to “the angel is that of the exodus plagues” (504). During the tenth plague a destroying angel swept over Egypt. Unfortunately, “destroyer” is a participle of ὀλεθρεύω rather than ἀπόλλυμι. Jubilees 49:2 calls this angel Mastema. LXX Psalm 77:49 refers to “evil angels” active in the plagues.

That Abaddon or Apollyon is associated with the Egyptian plagues would be consistent with the first four trumpets which also alluded to the plagues.

The Fifth Trumpet: Locust from the Abyss – Revelation 9:1-12

As the angel sounds the fifth trumpet, John sees a strange locust plague rising out of the bottomless pit like smoke. As with the other trumpets, this locust plague evokes the plagues on Egypt. This chapter is an excellent example of why we need to ground our reading of Revelation in its first-century context: the locust are NOT helicopters, drones, soldiers with jetpacks, or whatever new technology known today. These locusts are the ultimate demonic army which will be released in the last days.

The eighth plague was great plague of locust, such as has never been before nor will be again (Exod 10:14; Pss 78:48; 105:34-35). Ezekiel the Tragedian associated darkness and locust in the Egyptian plagues: “Darkness I’ll decree for three whole days, and locusts send, who shall the residue of food consume and every blade of grass” (EzTrag 1.144–146).

The curses for unfaithfulness include locust plagues (Deut 28:38; 1 Kings 8:36). Amos 4:9 describes a locust plague as God’s judgment on Israel and Jeremiah 46:23 describes the armies of Egypt as “more numerous than locusts; they are without number.” Huge enemy armies are uncountable locust (Judg 6:5; 7:12).

Since locusts are associated with a terrifying army of enemies who strip the land bare, a locust plague was a natural metaphor for a great final battle. Joel 2 uses a locust plague in Israel as a metaphor for an eschatological army descending on the land “like blackness spread upon the mountains a great and powerful army comes; their like has never been from of old, nor will be again after them in ages to come” (Joel 2:2).

Locust breed in the desert regions and can travel in a column as deep as one hundred feet and as long as four miles (Mounce, 186).  Usually locust strip the land of all vegetation, but these locusts do not attack vegetation, but rather who are not sealed by God. This is the opposite of the normal activity of locust, they eat plants, not people!

But these are not ordinary locust (Rev 9:7-9). There is an Arabic proverb that says that a locust has the head of a horse, the chest of a lion, the feet of a camel, the body of a serpent, and antennae like the hair of a woman. Each of the items in the description are grounded in the Old Testament and the literature of Second Temple Judaism.

Like other crowns in Revelation, these golden crowns refer to the power that they are given to rule for five months (Aune, 2:532).

Long disheveled hair does not mean these creatures are feminine. Samson and Absalom were both known for their strength yet had long hair. The important difference is this hair is disheveled. D.C. Duling suggests (OTP 1:973, note a) disheveled hair was a characteristic Medusa and is found on Aramaic Incantation Bowls depicting the demon Lilith with disheveled hair. Both the Testament of Solomon and the Apocalypse of Zephaniah describe demons with disheveled hair.

Testament of Solomon 13.1 Then I ordered another demon to appear before me. There came before me one who had the shape of a woman but she possessed as one of her traits the form of one with disheveled hair.

Apoc. Zeph. 4.1-4 Then I walked with the angel of the Lord. I looked before me and I saw a place there. 2 [Thousands] of thousands and myriads of myriads of an[gels] entered through [it]. 3 Their faces were like a leopar[d], their tusks being outside their mouth [like] the wild boars. 4 Their eyes were mixed with blood. Their hair was loose like the hair of women, and fiery scourges were in their hands.

Apoc. Zeph. 6:8 That same instant I stood up, and I saw a great angel before me. His hair was spread out like the lionesses’. His teeth were outside his mouth like a bear. His hair was spread out like women’s. His body was like the serpent’s when he wished to swallow me.

Teeth like iron are proverbial for “something irresistibly and fatally destructive” (Aune, 2:532) and their breastplates of iron imply invincibility.

These demonic locust-scorpions are given the power to torment people for five months. Although their sting is painful, the sting of a scorpions in Judea are not usually fatal to humans. These locust with scorpion tails are only allowed to torment people for five months, but not to kill them.

Why five months? It is often observed that the normal life-span of a locust is 5 months (Charles, 1:243, Aune 2:530, five simply means “a few”) The dry season in Palestine is also about 5 months, the months that are most likely to experience a locust plague. The time limit is an indication that this is not just a capricious torment, but a punishment with definite limits.  It is a warning to the earth, as are the other trumpets.

People “will beg God to kill them, but they won’t be able to die.” This is similar to the description given by Pliny of the eruption of Vesuvius, “People bewailed their own fate or that of their relatives, and there were some who prayed for death in their terror of dying.” (Ep. 6.20.14)

Apoc. Elijah 9.1-7 They will desire death but death will flee from them. They will climb onto rocks and jump down on them, and say, “Fall on us!” And they will not die but death runs away from them.

The people tormented by these demonic beings want to die in order to escape the plague but all that awaits them is the lake of fire.