Jesus returns to Capernaum, Peter’s village, where is met by a centurion asking him to heal his servant who is suffering greatly (Matthew 8:5-6). Like the story of Jesus healing the leper in the previous paragraph, Jesus will cross cultural barriers by responding to this Gentile’s request.
Jesus left Nazareth and began to live in Capernaum (Matthew 4:13), likely living in Peter’s home (8:14). He will return to the village in 11:23 and 17:24. The modern route from Nazareth to Capernaum is about 30 miles, but the way drops from 1138 feet at Nazareth to 680 feet below sea level at Capernaum (at current lake levels). In the first century Capernaum would not have been very large, perhaps no more that 1700 residents. The village is right on the shore of the Sea of Galilee and there is evidence of at least seven docks for fishermen. There is also evidence of a small synagogue under the impressive fifth century building modern tourists visit.
Having finished the Sermon on the Mount Jesus walked to the shore of the Sea of Galilee where Peter and his family lived. From the traditional site of the Sermon on the Mount to Capernaum is perhaps three and a half miles by the modern road, less if Jesus is able to take a more direct route.
The centurion is a Gentile, but it is at least possible he is a God-fearing gentile. Was there a Roman garrison in Capernaum in the first third of first century? This is often stated, but rarely proven. Mike Wilkins, for example, states “recent excavations reveal a military garrison at Capernaum had its headquarters to the east of the Jewish village” although he does not offer a footnote for this recent excavation (Wilkins, Matthew, 341).
There is little evidence for Roman military presence in Galilee prior to AD 44 (Wahlde, “Archaeology and John’s Gospel”). In the 1980s a Roman bathhouse was found near the eastern border of the village, right on the property line between the Franciscan and Orthodox properties. At present, the bathhouse is dated to the second or third century (it is similar to small bathhouses in Gaul and Britain from the period), but the excavators suspect an earlier bathhouse was present when the later was built.
Why would a typical Roman soldier think a Jewish healer would have this kind of authority? If he is simply a pagan Roman centurion, he may have tried all other methods, both medical and divine, to heal his servant. If he was a God-fearing Gentile, then he may have had faith in the God of Israel to heal. In either case, he had heard Jesus was known for healing all kind of illness and approaches on behalf of the servant. The point of the passage is that a Gentile expressed more faith than the Jews in the region, especially the Pharisees.
The centurion approaches Jesus and shows unusual respect for him. The verb translated “asking for help” (NIV) or “appealing to him” (ESV, NRSV) is προσκυνέω, “to express in attitude or gesture one’s complete dependence on or submission to a high authority figure” (BDAG). It can mean anything from “greet with affection” or “welcome respectfully” to “worship (like a god).” Although it is unlikely the man is worshiping Jesus like a god, it is significant Matthew has chosen this word to express the centurion’s attitude toward Jesus. This Gentile considers Jesus worthy of respect and honor.
His request is simple: heal my servant. It is possible to translate the noun παῖς as “servant” or “son.” In fact, John has son (υἱός), but Luke has “servant” (δοῦλος). It may be the case that the ambiguity of παῖς led to the different terms in Luke and John, and it is also possible the servant was so beloved by the centurion he considered him as a son. (See this post from Ian Paul for the suggestion the servant was the centurion’s gay lover. Dwight Gingrich points out the noun “παῖς (pais) usually carries no sexual connotations whatsoever.”)
In either case, he is paralyzed and suffering greatly. The verb translated “suffer” (βασανίζω) refers to extreme distress and is used for torture in some contexts. Matthew adds the adverb “greatly (δεινῶς), “an extreme negative point on a scale relating to values” (BDAG). When your doctor asks you how bad your pain is on a scale of one to ten, the servant’s pain goes all the way to eleven.
Jesus is willing to go to the servant and heal him, but the centurion knows a Jewish person would not enter the home of a Gentile.For example, in Acts, Peter initially refused to enter the home of Cornelius, a God-fearing Gentile who was so godly that the Lord sent an angel to personally answer his prayers. In Acts 10:28 Peter says, “You yourselves know how unlawful it is for a Jew to associate with or to visit anyone of another nation.”In the Mishnah, m Ohol. 18:7, “Dwelling places of gentiles [in the Land of Israel] are unclean.”
The centurion says he is not worthy (οὐκ εἰμὶ ἱκανός) of a visit from Jesus in his home. Instead, the centurion recognizes Jesus is authority and knows Jesus only has to say the word, and his servant will be healed.
Jesus is amazed at the man’s faith, telling his followers that he has met no one in Israel who has a similar faith. “No one in Israel” as opposed to the gentile centurion has expressed a belief in Jesus’s authority over illness. Why is this surprising? There are several texts in Isaiah which suggest the messiah would have a healing ministry, Isaiah 35:5-7. 61:1-4. If Jesus was known for “proclaiming the good news of the kingdom” and healing every disease and sickness (Matt 4:24), then the teachers of the Law and the Pharisees should have made the connection to these prophecies about the coming eschatological age. In the next few pages of Matthew, the teachers of the Law and the Pharisees will question Jesus’s authority and cast doubt on the origins of his power.
Skipping over 8:10-12 for now, the story concludes in verse 13, the servant is immediately healed. In the leper story, Jesus says he is willing to heal, and in this story, Jesus once again expresses his authority by healing the servant by his word, crossing over social and cultural boundaries to care for someone at the lowest rungs of society.
6 thoughts on “Jesus Heals the Centurion’s Servant – Matthew 8:5-13”
Thanks for linking to the post by Ian Paul. I addressed the same misreading of this text in the following post (one of three texts I address in that post): http://dwightgingrich.com/was-jesus-okay-with-homosexuality-5-of-6/
Thanks for the link, I have added it to the original post.
To a modern reader, there are a few aspects of this story that do not seem to show the centurion in a good light. Firstly, a modern reader may read the text and question why the centurion did not want Jesus to enter his home. If the centurion truly had faith and believed that Jesus was worthy of respect (as mentioned in the blog post above); why then would he not want such an authority figure in his home? Would not someone today want a celebrity visitor in their house? Perhaps the centurion was nervous, or perhaps he did not really respect Jesus, but only wanted to use him for his renowned healing abilities rather than spending time with him and having to make small talk. However, this is not the case. The centurion, being culturally intelligent, knew that Jews considered the homes of Gentiles to be unclean, and therefore impossible to enter (Long, 2020). Thus, the centurion very kindly ensured Jesus that his home was not worthy of such a respectable visitor, and therefore demonstrated great faith by trusting that this healer could do his wonders both in-person and remotely (perhaps over Google Meet) (Long, 2020). As shown by the parable of the good samaritan, it is known that Jesus enjoyed using Gentiles to teach the Jewish people (particularly the Pharisees) lessons by making the Jews feel ashamed that – despite what they may have thought – they were no better than the Gentiles, and in fact were often less worthy of inheriting the kingdom despite being among God’s chosen people. With the story of the centurion and the sick servant/son, Jesus is continuing his teaching regarding Gentiles and Jews being equally worthy of inheriting the Kingdom (as seen in Galatians 3:8, Romans 3:29, and Colossians 3:11, for example) by raising up the faith of a Roman centurion and using it as an example for the Pharisees.
This story I believe is indicative of the power that Jesus had, as well as the compassion he had for others of all walks of life. The fact that Jesus would aid what is essentially the property of a roman soldier is impressive in terms of the social implications, but also the political ones. This interaction that Jesus had with the Roman Centurion is shocking considering what men like this man would do to Jesus later at the will of the Romans. This is also interesting from the point of view of the Centurion, the idea that this man would be willing to go to Jesus with this problem despite what his roman associates would think about him doing this is interesting. Most of his acquaintances were likely pagans and gentiles, holding no belief in the God of Israel or the authority of Jesus. However, one way or another this particular soldier felt that asking help of Jesus to heal his servant was worth the embarrassment and believed at least in some part that Jesus may be able to help him. He seemed to truly believe in that he would suggest that Jesus need not dirty himself by going to the servant but instead just say his name. This soldier could have gone about this in a much different way, but it would seem that he did think Jesus had the power to heal his servant and he wanted to show respect. This centurion could have simply demanded that Jesus go to the home of the servant given the difference in power that Jesus and the roman held, but the roman showed him respect and faith.