Romans 12:1 and the Scapegoat

Paul uses a metaphor for the Christian life in this verse: the “in Christ” people are to be like “living sacrifices” to God. This is a metaphor that a Roman, Greek, or Jew would fully understand. Typically a sacrifice is killed on the altar, but here Paul says that the sacrifice acceptable to God in the present age is to remain alive.

scapegoatNobuyoshi Kiuchi suggested that the background for this living sacrifice that is holy and acceptable to the Lord is the Hebrew Bible, specifically the Azazel-goat in Leviticus 16:10-22. As a part of the Day of Atonement ritual, two goats were selected. One would be sacrificed, the other was “presented alive.”

As the high Priest laid his hands on the goat he confessed the sins of the people and the goat was released “into the wilderness” or “for Azazel.” The Mishnah reports he would say to the goat: “Bear our sins and be gone!” (Yoma 6.4). As Kiuchi points out, this is the only sacrifice for sin in the Hebrew Bible that is a “living sacrifice.” The tradition that the goat was pushed over a cliff and killed comes from the Mishnah and is not found in Leviticus.

A potential problem for Kiuchi is that the Azazel-goat is never called a living sacrifice in Second Temple literature. In the Mishnah and other texts it is the “sent-away goat” since it represents the sin of the people being carried away into the wilderness. While Kiuchi suggests that Paul’s allusion to the Azazel-goat is intended to draw attention to Leviticus rather that contemporary practice (p. 259), it is hard to see how this is helpful for unpacking the metaphor since it is Jesus that bears away the sin of the believers. Jesus is the “living sacrifice” who solved the problem of sin and human estrangement from God. In this view of the metaphor, the sacrificed goat would be Jesus and the believer is the “living sacrifice.”

The solution is to see the sacrifice in Romans 12:1 as a reference to the new life of the believer in Christ. From a Gentile perspective, living a morally virtuous life is of more value than the worthless dead sacrifices happening in the temples. Even if the Jewish sacrifices are in mind, a life that is lived as a “spiritual form of worship” is better than the daily sacrifice in the Temple.

One aspect of this metaphor of a living sacrifice that is rarely mentioned is the fact that the early Church had virtually no ritual elements compared to other ancient religious movements. Christians did not go to a temple to sacrifice to their god like virtually everyone else in the world at that time. Paul says here that the acceptable sacrifices are not animals, but the worshipers themselves.

How would person living in the first generation of the Church actually go about being a “living sacrifice”?

How radical is this calling that Paul describes here?

Bibliography:  Kiuchi, Nobuyoshi. “Living like the Azazel-goat in Romans 12:1B,” Tyndale Bulletin 57 (2006): 251-61.

15 thoughts on “Romans 12:1 and the Scapegoat

  1. For a person living in the first century of the church to actually live out being a living sacrifice, they would have to remove themselves from the culture around them that makes life into a largely self-fulfilled thought process. By doing this, the person would stop thinking about finding fulfillment in raising themselves up in the eyes of those around them, but instead they would look to help others. Through the lens of Christianity, the believer would not be living for themselves anymore after accepting Christ, because Christ was that sacrifice, the only logical thing to do is to share the knowledge of that once and for all sacrifice with everyone else, no matter the cost. In Mark 8:34, Jesus says that if anyone wants to follow him they must deny themselves and take up their own cross to follow him. This means that Jesus is saying that the Christian believer should not be thinking of themselves but giving up the comfort of normal life and living sacrificially when following Jesus. I would say that Paul is radical in a way that his listeners would have understood. When using examples from the OT and even sacrifices in general to pagan gods, these things would have been understood by all, and thus, it makes it a little less abrasive to his listeners as not coming off as super radical because he is using examples from their own lives to show them what he means.

  2. It’s interesting that we are called to be “living sacrifices”. Like you stated, sacrifices were a part of the culture norm in their time. To be a living sacrifice would be a radical idea for their society, but it matches the call that is presented in verse 2. “Do not be conformed to this world.” Like Moo says in chapter 16, “”Animals might be slaughtered in sacrificial worship, but people worship God by using their God-given intelligence to honor him.” Worshipping God with our minds instead of our actions was counter-culture.

    We are sort of like the scapegoat in Leviticus. We do not carry the weight of sin on our shoulders, but we are released from death, unlike the other goat, and sent to be free.

  3. If we look at the context, Paul has just described how through the Jews fall salvation has come to the Gentiles 11:11, but that they should not be highminded but fear 11:19-22. Because of all he has just described, (all glory is His) by the great mercy the Lord has given, the reasonable service in response is to give all of your life to Him. ch 12 further describes specifics of what Paul means in relation to one another, 13 how to conduct oneself related to those with authority. 14 is full of specifics as to how to co-exist with saints where the Jewish saints are still subject to Jewish laws as Jews-eg observing Passover. Here is where Paul is adding his knowledge in how they are one church yet distinctions(commands given to Gentiles were only what was necessary in Acts 15:19,20.
    15:1-3-even Christ pleased not Himself, but suffered persecution for doing the will of the Father.
    The unitedness of the saints both Jews and Gentiles saying the same thing, loving one another in this self-sacrificing way, manifesting the sign gifts, was radical to all the worlds around them.
    side note: *12:12-indicates Paul is thinking the Day of the Lord is imminent, likewise, 16:20

  4. I particularly like your question P. Long, of how would someone living in the first generation go about living as a sacrifice compared to someone of today’s generation. someone of the that time would “practically be obeying God’s word and continue to be transformed” (TTP, p.188). In TTP (p.188), the authors reference Paul speaking to the Romans in chapter 1 about their dishonorable passions (Rom. 1:26) such as man committing sexual acts with man (Rom.1:27), filled with unrighteousness (Rom 1:29) and they would practice those evil things while being aware that they will die from it (Rom 1:32). With the sins of the Romans that Paul calls out in Chapter 1, I think that section can go with the metaphor of the two goats that the one living is the believer that is to turn from their sins and act from God’s grace through the sacrifice of His son Jesus. Those dishonorable passions were and are not pleasing to God, so Paul challenges them to be transformed by their faith in Christ and know what is pleasing to God.

  5. The reference to Leviticus 16:10-22 by which Paul makes an analogy is a powerful concept to help us as believers to understand how they ought to live out life for Christ. P. Long’s blog helps us understand context and summarizes how, in Romans 12:1, Paul is making an illustration to how Christians ought to live. To comment on P. Long’s first question, Bruce Longenecker and Todd Still write on this question in their book Thinking Through Paul; A Survey of His Life, Letters, and Theology. They write that living as a holy and honorable sacrifice results in a pattern of life against that of sinfulness Paul outlined in Romans 1:18-32 (Longenecker, Still, Pg. 188). What it looks like for a Christian of the first century to live as a sacrifice for Christ is to not suppress the truth, to know God and to honor and thank Him. This is a radical analogy to first century Christians partly because of what P. Long notes in his last paragraph, that this is radical because Christians did not practice sacrifices because Christ died once and for all. this is also radical because, this they did not practice sacrifices, to live as a sacrifice is a new and odd concept to Christians of Paul’s day.

  6. Reading through Romans 12:1, I never gave much weight to the importance of the word “living.” I thought it meant, as long as we live, we are supposed to praise or something along those lines. I’m learning that digging deeper into the history and culture of the Bible gives so much power and purpose. It displays a different side to Jesus’ sacrifice and how He becomes our “living sacrifice.” Through this metaphor, it also takes the meaning off of the animal and onto the worshippers. Moo talks about “Animals might be slaughtered in sacrificial worship, but people worship God by using their God-given intelligence to honor him” (Moo, 163). This also shows the care that God has for His people and the responsibility that we have to respond. We are a creation that was and is meant for worship and that is what our lives become. Through everything that we do, it should be a form of worship.

  7. I don’t believe that Paul’s claim that we need to perceive ourselves as living sacrifices is radical at all. If we look at what Jesus did on the cross, he died for us sinners. God sacrificed his son so that those who believe can be saved. Those who believe are the living result, the living sacrifices. Philippians 12:1 says, “for me to live is Christ, and to die is gain.” This is referring to the fact that by us living, we are living as Jesus does. Dying is gaining when we enter the kingdom of heaven after our earthly lives are over. Like you mentioned, a life lived as a spiritual form of worship is better than sacrifices made in the temple. Living a life in worship is the sacrifice, the living sacrifice is us.

    I feel like a person living in the 1st century would consider being a “living sacrifice” to be abnormal. First century or first generation church members lived in a time when everyone around them was sacrificing animals either to humans gods (Rome) or to The Lord himself. Because of this, it only makes sense that the idea of a sacrifice being simply alive, would be a bit far-fetched for a first generation church member

  8. “Therefore, I urge you, brothers, in view of God’s mercy, to offer your bodies as living sacrifices, holy and pleasing to God this is your spiritual act of worship (Romans 12:1).” Paul calls the Christian believers “living sacrifices”, but what does that mean exactly? A sacrifice is something or someone who gives something they own or possess (this can include themselves as well). And offer it as a tribute to another person or in the Ancient World it could be offered to a god. Like in the practice of worship among the Greeks and Romans. But what Paul says is we are more than just any sacrifice offered to God. Because we are created in the image of God, God values us over any sacrifice, or burnt offering. Instead we are to live out our lives as a living representation of the gift that God has given us and that gift is salvation and eternal life for the believer. By presenting our bodies as living sacrifices it doesn’t just mean our physical bodies. “It includes our thoughts, our emotions, and our wills. All are to be given to God in his service. This, Paul concludes, is our “true and proper worship” (Moo pg. 163).”

  9. Depending on how you look at the term “living sacrifice” defines how radical Pauls is describing the calling. Long mentions in this blog that Paul wants the worshippers themselves to be the “living sacrifice” I think this is meaning to dedicate their full selves to the Lord and being a vessel to the Lord. For the first generation of the Church to go about being a “living sacrifice” I think that they should live by setting themselves apart from the traditional views of religion and begin their RELATIONSHIP with Christ. At this point there was a lot of pressure to live the perfect Jewish lifestyle while following the Law of the Pharisees rather than following the Law of the Lord and worshipping His Son.

    The radicalness of Paul isn’t very extreme, here Paul is wanting each believer to be ready to face death for the name of Christ. In the most recent blog I talked about other countries worshipping God and how it might be illegal but if caught for living life as a Christian they may be put to death unless they deny Christ. This is the extreme definition of being a “living sacrifice”. In another definition of taking Paul’s radical words lightly it could mean to live your life fully for Jesus in a proper western culture and giving what you have to the Lord to grow the kingdom.

    1 Corinthians 6:19-20

  10. The answer to your first question, and I might be taking the answer from you because you quoted these verses in class today, “You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul and with all your mind…and a second is like it: You shall love your neighbor as yourself” (Matthew 22:37, 39). Of course, if we want to be technical Matthew wasn’t written yet so maybe a better verse for the early church would be Romans 13:8, “Owe no one anything, except to love each other, for the one who loves another has fulfilled the law.” Simply put, to be a living sacrifice would mean to give yourself up for the sake of the Gospel and further glory to God, I feel like there’s a verse that says something similar. This statement is pretty radical, in a way, Paul is telling the Gentiles, who live in a shame-honor culture, to give up their honor, or any honor they might receive from loving their neighbors, (albeit they wouldn’t receive much honor for something like that), and direct that glory to God. Nowadays, it is very easy for people to do a good deed for someone else so that they look good. Lots of influencers do that. Being a living sacrifice in early church times would have been radical because it means giving up honor, and seeking honor for yourself, and giving it to God. Likewise, being a living sacrifice today is quite radical. Many people give to gain glory for themselves, or looking for something in return. The argument of karma, the ‘what goes around comes around mindset’ is pretty relevant in today’s culture. Even worse is when people expect God to give them riches on earth for the good deed they did.

  11. The scapegoat is a fascinating event as that is never really heard of much these days. I did not know before that a high priest would sacrifice a goat, and then cast away another with all the sins of the people. It is also interesting that the sacrificed goat represents Jesus, as for the casted away goat, the “living sacrifice”, represents us. I like what this really means is to live our lives that are holy and acceptable to the Lord, especially that it is the Hebrew Bible (Long,1). This sacrifice is also best to see it as the new life as a believer in Christ (Long, 1). As Paul says in Romans 12:2, “do not conform ‘any’ longer to the pattern of this world…”

    Instead of Christian diverse community ranking its members according to their social importance and stature, its members are to be inspired to play whatever role they have been called to play (Longenecker and Still, 189).

  12. It seems contradictory to call something a living sacrifice. When we think of a sacrifice we think of dying, usually in someone else’s place. Christ was the sacrifice for our sins. A living sacrifice, that just seems like a paradox. The imagery of this verse was also more relevant to the time period it was written in. Sacrifices, especially religious sacrifices, are not common in the western world today. Thus to completely understand Romans 12:1, some explanation is required. As the blog explains, one suggested explanation is that the Azazel-goat from the Day of Atonement is the living sacrifice that the people are familiar with. It is a sacrifice, to bear the sins of the people, that is not killed on the altar. Even though they may have killed it in the wild, this sacrifice was let go and continued to live, at least for a while. This explanation has some holes in it. More likely what Paul meant by a living sacrifice, was that the way one lived should reflect that they have “sacrificed” or dedicated their life to Christ. The point of a sacrifice that was killed was to pay for sins, but believers should be a living sacrifice in the sense that living their lives in worship is more desirable to God than to offer animals on the altar. Both in 1 Samuel and Psalm 51, the author speaks of the Lord not desiring sacrifices. Instead he desires a broken and contrite heart. God would rather you be sorry and truly repent of your sins than offer sacrifices. Your sacrifice should be a change in the way you live. And this is hard to do. It takes true dedication to live in this radical way.

  13. The blog post shed light on a probable origin for this metaphor by making connections to the Day of Atonement ritual in Leviticus. The Azazel-goat, who represented the people’s sins, was not sacrificed, but rather “sent away” into the desert. While the image does not closely parallel the Azazel-goat, it emphasizes Jesus’ important position as the “living sacrifice” who bears away Christians’ sins. The post’s suggestion that the sacrifice in Romans 12:1 refers to the new life of the Christian believer is appealing. It emphasizes the significance of moral virtue and a changed way of life as the true form of worship for early Christians. This idea contradicts traditional practices in ancient religious movements by emphasizing human transformation over ritualistic sacrifices. The metaphor of a “living sacrifice” also emphasizes early Christianity’s uniqueness, as it lacked the extensive ritual aspects found in other modern religions. Instead, Paul stresses the believers themselves as acceptable sacrifices, emphasizing the transformational power of faith. Being a “living sacrifice” in the early Church required members to live a life that resembled Jesus’ teachings and example. In a world that often fostered self-interest and ritualistic offerings, it meant exercising love, humility, and selflessness. This calling was radical since it called for a full reorientation of one’s ideals and conduct, challenging the status quo.

  14. When most people think of sacrifices, they think of killing an animal such as lamb or a bull on an altar in a religious ritual. However, not all sacrifices ended with death, as seen throughout the book of Leviticus. For example, there were multiple offerings the Israelites gave, in addition to what was called their “burnt” offerings. Grain offerings dealt with giving a percentage of the wheat or barley they harvested back to God, as seen in Leviticus 2. There was also an offering giving the first fruits of the harvest (Nehemiah 10:35, Genesis 4:3-4). Wine was also an offering given to God (Leviticus 29:13). Because not all offerings were burnt offerings or offerings that involved sacrificing animals, it was not unheard of to have other types of offerings. Romans 12:1 introduces a new type of offering, which is called a “living sacrifice”, meaning that our lives and our bodies are a sacrifice to God every day of our lives until He calls us home.

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