Since we have access to the Father, we can boast in the “hope of the glory of God” (5:2b). Hope in Paul’s letters tends to be eschatological, looking forward to the future resurrection from the dead. Our hope in this context is in some way present (we are presently boasting in the hope of glory). In the next chapter Paul will describe our salvation as a resurrection from the dead; we were dead in our sin, but we have been crucified with Christ so that we are now alive in him.
Boasting is usually a negative idea for Paul, in chapter 4 one who is justified by works can “boast” about their good works, Ephesians 2:8-9 salvation is by grace through faith so that no one can boast. But here Paul says we can take pride in the certainty we will participate in the future glory of the resurrection.
Our present/future justification means we can rejoice in our suffering (5:3-4). The verb translated “rejoice” is the same as boasting in the previous verse (καυχάομαι). Suffering is typically not something a Roman person would boast about, and a Jewish person might associate suffering with the curse of the law. But Paul says those who are in Christ ought to boast in both our future hope and our present suffering. Why?
Suffering (θλῖψις) produces endurance (ὑπομονή). Suffering can include any kind of oppression or affliction, whether that is natural (from and illness) or from some sort of persecution. What sort of suffering would the Roman church have faced at this point in history? Some were expelled from Rome because of their Christian faith, likely the Jewish Christians were alienated from their families, and the Gentiles appear to have rejected their family gods and the gods who made Rome great, even denying that Caesar is Lord is dangerous.
Endurance produces character (δοκιμή). By enduring suffering, we develop character. The noun refers to the results of testing something, perhaps to discover if it is genuine or to assess its value. Like testing gold in fire, a person’s character as revealed by suffering.
Character produces hope (ἐλπίς). Our developing character produces hope, knowing that the suffering is entirely worthwhile. By way of an analogy, people who train for an athletic context suffer physically from their training. Someone training to run the marathon in the Olympics must change their entire lifestyle in order to compete at that level.
Our hope will not disappoint (καταισχύνω). This verb is sometimes used for disgrace or dishonor, or even humiliate (t.Judah 12:5). If hope refers to our status as justified at a future judgment before God, we can be confident that when we do stand before the judgment seat of Christ, the hope we have in the death of Jesus as payment for our sin will not come up short, leaving us facing a penalty for our sin.
In contrast to being humiliated by an unpaid debt at the final judgment, our debt is fully paid by the death of Jesus so that we can stand before the judgment seat of Christ without the possibility of being ashamed by an unpaid sin debt.