Second John – Developing Doctrine and Practice

The short letter of Second John is address to the “elect lady and her children.” This is likely a reference to a church. Since the Greek word for church is feminine, calling a church a “chosen lady” is a natural metaphor. Jobes points out that neither “chosen” nor “lady” were used as proper names in the first century, nor are there any personal names in this letter (Letters to the Churches, 441). John refers to the members of a congregation as “children” in 1 John several times, so it seems fairly certain that this address is to a congregation of believers.

It may be a generic letter, however, circulated to several churches in a region. 1 John seems to be intended as a circular letter, so it is possible that this short note from “the elder” was passed around to several house churches. Since this letter is written on a single scrap of paper (verse 12), it may have been intended as a personal note from John, carried by a traveling preacher visiting congregations under John’s oversight. Obviously 1 and 2 John are related, but there is no way to know which letter came first or if they were addressed to different congregations.

The theological content of the letter is similar to that of 1 John. The writer warns the congregation about “deceivers” who have gone out into the world and deny that Jesus came in the flesh (v. 7). In verse 9 John implies that these deceivers have “gone ahead” rather than remained in the truth as it was first taught. Perhaps some teachers had tried to find a way to explain who Jesus was which “went beyond” what the apostles originally taught. These people were not heretics in the traditional sense, but Christians who were seeking to understand what Jesus claimed about himself. While John calls them deceivers, their deception might have been an on honest attempt to develop theology even if it went a different direction that what John himself was teaching.


This is a problem for modern theology. The main issue in Second John is that the false teachers had developed doctrine in a way which was unacceptable. I think they had good intentions – they were genuinely trying to explain a very difficult concept (God became flesh) and they did so in a way which they thought was consistent with their Jewish world view. But from the perspective of John, they have gone too far and need to “remain” in the original teaching he delivered to them.

I think that it is necessary to develop doctrine “beyond the Bible,” since the Bible simply does not specifically address every situation which may arise in a modern context. I am frequently asked what the Bible has to say about birth control or in vitro fertilization. Since it is very hard to “quote a verse” as a proof-text either for or against these practices, Christians have to infer ethical practice from the general teaching of the Bible. The difficult part is knowing when we have “run ahead” and developed a doctrine beyond what the intent of the Bible was in the first place.

Does a little letter like 2 John provide a model for developing doctrine? Or should we read it as a sober warning about going too far?

Interview: Elaine Pagels on Revelation

NPR has a nice interview with Elaine Pagels discussing her new book,  Revelations: Visions, Prophecy and Politics in the Book of Revelation.  It will be no surprise to anyone familiar with  Pagels that she draws parallels to Gnostic gospels, but she insists on calling non-biblical apocalyptic “Books of Revelation.”  She does point out that these other books were never canonical, but there were reserved for the advanced believers since they are filled with secret knowledge.  Pagels describes Revelation as anti-Imperial propaganda written after the destruction of Jerusalem by a second generation Jewish follower of Jesus who was more than a little angry at Rome.

NPR’s Terry Gross does a nice job moving the half hour interview along, topics range from the point of Revelation to the impact of evangelicalism on Pagels as a teenager and her conscious departure from Christianity. Towards the end she responds to (fundamentalist) readers who criticize her interpretation of Revelation.  As a non-religious religions professor, she has some unique insights into the way people approach Revelation today.

I have the book and will post a review in a few days.

[Update:  Follow this link for my review of Revelations by Elaine Pages.]