Not as many entries for this one as usual, I blame November for this. Too many distractions (SBL, Thanksgiving, etc.) So the winner of the Grant Osborne’s Verse by Verse commentary on Hebrews is Claire Cannon. Congrats, even though she did not give her favorite Hebrews commentary. If she had, I am sure it would have been F. F. Bruce, his was the runway best of the best from the other commenters.
Grant Osborne’s Verse by Verse commentary on Hebrews is the twelfth in the series and the first published after Osborne’s death in November 2018. The commentary was nearly complete when he died, missing only summary sections on chapters 10-13, commentary on the final verses of chapter 13, and the introduction. Osborne requested Lexham allow George Guthrie to finish the commentary. Even though George Guthrie is a well-known Hebrews scholar himself, the commentary belongs to Osborne.
Osborne’s commentary readable for academic readers, yet the layperson will have no trouble working the commentary as they read Hebrews. Like other volumes in this series, Osborne achieves his goal of helping pastors to “faithfully exposit the text in a sermon.” Go read the rest of the review, I make some comments on Osborne’s views on the
If you want a free copy of this book, leave a comment with your favorite Hebrews commentary and your name and email (if it is not in your profile already) so I can contact you if you win. I will put all the names in a spreadsheet, randomize them, then use a random number generator to select a winner on November 29, 2021 (two weeks from today).
If you don’t win this book, check back for another giveaway starting November 29 (after Thanksgiving).
Osborne, Grant R. and George H. Guthrie. Hebrews: Verse by Verse. Osborne New Testament Commentaries; Bellingham, Wash.: Lexham Press, 2021. 360 pp.; Pb. $19.99 Link to Lexham Press
Grant Osborne’s Verse by Verse commentary on Hebrews is the twelfth in the series and the first published after Osborne’s death in November 2018. The commentary was nearly complete when he died, missing only summary sections on chapters 10- 13, commentary on the final verses of chapter 13, and the introduction. Osborne requested Lexham allow George Guthrie to finish the commentary. As Guthrie explains in the preface, he followed Osborne’s original outline for the book of Hebrews, although he has a slightly different view (see his The Structure of Hebrews: A Textlinguistic Analysis, Brill, 1994; Baker, 1998). Even though George Guthrie is a well-known Hebrews scholar himself, the commentary belongs to Osborne.
In terms of its message, Hebrews is unique among the New Testament writings. The author’s interaction with the Old Testament shines a light on early Christology and offers a unique view of Jesus’s sacrificial work. In the introduction, Osborne suggests Hebrews may have been a Jewish synagogue sermon, but the author addresses challenges faced at a critical time in the church’s development. This means the book of Hebrews is pastoral and relevant to the church in the twenty-first century.
Any commentary on Hebrews must deal with authorship of the anonymous letter. Osborne is clear: the author was not Paul (for the usual reasons). He suggests Apollos, although this cannot be known with certainty. We can know the author was well-educated, had synagogue training, had experiences in Jewish exegetical strategies, and was a concerned Christian minister who deeply cared about the congregation.
Regarding destination and date, Osborne argues the book was addressed to Rome (based on Hebrews 13:24, and similarities with 1 Clement). “Hebrews is profoundly Jewish” (7), although the original audience may have included God-fearing gentiles. The recipients of the letter struggled with persevering in the faith (as seen in the warning passages). Based on 5:11-6:3, Osborne dates the book of Hebrews after AD 49 (Claudius’s edict expelling Jews from Rome), but also before Nero’s persecution. Hebrews 12:9 implies the church has not yet suffered death. Osborne concludes “early to mid-60s AD” (9).
With respect to the purpose of Hebrews, he observes Hebrews is a complex and rich theological text, but it is also deeply pastoral. Perseverance in the Christian faith is in direct proportion to the clarity with which the reader understands who Jesus is and what Jesus has accomplished. If the readers really grasp Christ’s identity as the eternal son of God, the creator of the world, and the Lord of all that there is, the one who became incarnate and lived and died for us as our high priest and great sacrifice for sin, it will help an enduring in the Christian life (10).
A major issue for any commentary on Hebrews is the warning passages. Commenting on Hebrews 6:4-8, Osborne suggests members of house churches in Rome are guilty of indifference and low spiritual commitment. The author is afraid they may fall into total spiritual ruin and commit apostasy. The writer does not think they will, but a serious warning is in order. Typically, this passage is interpreted through a theological lens, whether Calvinist or Armenian. Osborne admits he is arguing one side of this debate, but also trying to be open and respectful towards the other side. He does not want to force his opinion on the reader but will provide data so the reader can decide for themselves (117).
He believes this passage teaches there is a final apostasy from which someone cannot possibly be redeemed. Apostasy is the “absolute rejection of Christ as Lord and Savior (121). All five of the blessings listed 6:4b-5 result from a “conversion to Christ” (119) and “define what it means to be a Christian” (121). “Have fallen away” is not a conditional sentence but rather a coordinate clause. The writer is not saying “if they should fall away” but pointing out what will happen when they fall away.
Regarding the warning passage in Hebrews 10:26-27, Osborne points out two factors that make this sin particularly heinous. The apostasy the author has in mind is both continuous and a deliberate, direct defiance of God. The person who has fallen into apostasy “obviously delights in thwarting God and persists,” turning the sin “from an act into a lifestyle” (219). Osborne relates the judgment described in 10:28-29 to someone in Israel who turned from God to worship idols, repudiating the God of Israel. According to Deuteronomy 13:8 and 17:1-6, the one who has turned to idols must be executed without mercy! Since the readers of Hebrews are under the new covenant, the penalty is much more severe, involving eternal, spiritual death (220).
The body of the commentary is divided into fifteen chapters following the outline in the commentary’s introduction (Hebrews 11 is divided between two chapters). The goal of the commentary series is to provide study notes for devotional reading or a small group Bible study. Chapters are brief and do not interact with secondary literature. There is a short bibliography of major commentaries for further study. Osborne’s comments are based on the English text of Hebrews, but he occasionally refers to Greek words (always appearing in transliteration). Uncommon terms appear in bold and are defined in a glossary (midrash, for example).
This makes the commentary readable for both academic readers, yet the layperson will have no trouble reading the commentary as they work their way through the book of Hebrews. Like other volumes in this series, Osborne achieves his goal of helping pastors to “faithfully exposit the text in a sermon.”
The Osborne New Testament Commentaries appear in both print and electronic Logos Library editions. Reviews of previous volumes:
König, Adrio. Christ Above All: The Book of Hebrews (Transformative Word). Bellingham, Wash.: Lexham, 2019. 100 pp.; Pb; $12.99. Link to Lexham
This short book is the third in a new series of Bible study books from Lexham. The Transformative Word series is edited by Craig Bartholonew and David Beldman and intends “identify a key theme in each book of the Bible, and each volume provides careful Biblical exegesis centered on that gripping theme.” Lexham has published Carolyn Custis James, Finding God in the Margins: The Book of Ruth and Dru Johnson, The Universal Story: Genesis 1–11.
König begins with a short overview of the book of Hebrews and an outline of the main themes of the book (the magnificence of and humanity of Christ, chapters 2-4). This first chapter also briefly introduces a few problems for the reader of Hebrews, namely the use of the Old Testament (chapter 5), the six warning passages (chapter 6) and the unforgiveable sin (chapter 7).
He begins his three chapters on Christ with a close look at the first three verse of Hebrews, followed by a chapter on the humanity and sinlessness of Christ. The longest chapter in the book is devoted to the magnificence of Christ (ch. 4). Here König tracks how Hebrews describes Jesus as “greater than” a wide range of things from the Old Testament. He concludes this section by suggesting the recipients of this message were Jewish Christians in danger of returning to the synagogue as a result of persecution.
König then examines both the positive and negative uses of the Old Testament in Hebrews (ch. 5). Even a cursory reading of Hebrews will demonstrate the writer’s knowledge of the Old Testament. In many places his argument hinges on a particular detail, such as his allusion to Melchizedek. To illustrate the negative, he points to the several statements in the book in which “it is impossible” for a sacrifice to take away sin, etc.
One of the more difficult aspects of Hebrews are the warning passages. König deals with these in two separate chapters, the first asking if grace can be lost. After a short survey of the six warning passages, he offers evidence for both yes and no. He includes short lists of biblical support for both sides of this troubling issue and concludes “we have to accept this open situation” (80). He then focuses specifically on the warnings in 6:4-6, 10:26-27 and 12:14-17 as “The Unforgivable Sin.” He draws the analogy to Matthew 12 (where the language is “blasphemy against the Holy Spirit) and suggests “we have more or less the same depiction of this sin” in Hebrews (88). I am not convinced the sin in Matthew 12 is what the writer of Hebrews has in mind. König does not take into account real possibility the readers of Hebrews are warned against recanting their faith in the face of persecution. In addition, there is more exegesis to be done in Hebrews 6 to decide whether this is “unforgiveable sin” is a real possibility. This is impossible given the limits on this brief book.
Within each chapter are short sidebars explaining some detail in the text (Marcion, the Historical Trustworthiness of the Gospel) or a list of Scripture on a theological point (Christ Called God; Jesus is Greater Than, etc.) Each chapter ends with a collection of parallel biblical texts for further study and a set of reflection questions. These questions are designed to facilitate a small group Bible study. In addition, König introduces a discussion without necessarily answering all the questions. This should lead to a lively discussion.
NB: Thanks to Lexham Press for kindly providing me with a review copy of this book. This did not influence my thoughts regarding the work.
The Logos Bible Software “Free book of the Month” for April 2018 is Four Views on the Warning Passages in Hebrews, edited by Herbert Bateman IV (Kregel, 2007). Like most “four views” books, this volume contains essays explaining the warning passages in Hebrews 6 and Hebrews 10. If you are unaware of the controversial nature of these passages, see these two postson Hebrews 6. In this volume, Grant R. Osborne represents a Classical Arminian view, Buist M. Fanning, a Classical Reformed view, Gareth Lee Cockerill a Wesleyan Arminian view and Randall C. Gleason a Moderate Reformed view. Each writer offers an essay and the other three offer brief responses. Hebrews scholar George H. Guthrie concludes the book with a final response. When students ask me about Hebrews 6 and 10, this volume is my “go to” text to balance the two major approaches (Calvinism and Arminianism).
As Logos usually does, they are offering two “almost free” books as well. For only $1.99 you can add Lars Kierspel, Charts on the Life, Letters, and Theology of Paul (Kregel, 2012). When I reviewed this book in 2012I said:
As with other books in this series, Kierspel has a paragraph on text explaining each chart in the final section. This 44-page section is important to read since it is here that he gives bibliography for the data he includes. In some cases these are mini-introductions to controversial topics (like Pauline chronology, for example). The book has an extensive 31 page bibliography. Like other books in this series, there a staggering amount of information presented in these charts. While I question the usefulness of some of the charts for classroom use, the book is a worth while investment for those who teach the Pauline letters in church or classroom.
For $9.99 you can add one more Kregel publication, Robert Chisholm’s Commentary on Judges and Ruth. I also reviewed this commentarya few years ago, saying:
Chisholm’s commentary on Judges and Ruth is an excellent exposition of the text from a conservative scholar. For the most part he assumes the historicity of the text and ignores any discussion of potential sources or anachronisms. He specifically eschews these methods in the introduction (p. 15), characterizing these as “creative scholarly conjecture” (p. 30). He considers revisions of Noth’s Deuteronomisitc History to be a “debate going around in circles” (55). His exposition of the text is based on the assumption the book was intended to be read as a literary whole.
There is less historical background material in this commentary than might be expected. Major commentaries on Old Testament books can become bloated with material accessible in other resources (Bible Dictionaries for example). Since his interests are literary and theological, there is no need to offer descriptions of geographical locations or comments on archaeology (or the lack thereof) as background to the stories.
I would recommend the book to pastors and teachers who are preparing sermons on the often overlooked book of Judges. Chisholm’s exposition is easy to read and provides excellent illumination of the text for the purpose of serving the Church today.
Three great books form Kregel Academic for a mere $13 total. More, until April 30 you can enter (several times) to win the five volume set of Kregel Charts of the Bible and Theology. Since Logos Basic is now free, there is really no excuse for not adding these excellent books to your Logos library.