What is the Mark of the Beast? – Revelation 13:16-18

The second beast causes all people to be marked on their right hand or forehead. If they do not have the mark of the beast they cannot buy or sell. One of the most tantalizing aspects in the New Testament is the meaning of the mark of the beast. John tells us it is the name of the beast, but it is converted into numbers: 666. John then invites the readers to use wisdom to calculate the number of the beast, inadvertently beginning 2000 years of speculation of what the number 666 means.

Two Beasts medieval apocalypse

I will start by disappointing some readers: The number of the beast does not refer to any American politician. It does not calculate to Obama or Trump, nor does it refer to the mega-wealthy pulling the strings of the government (Soros, Gates, Bezos, etc.) It does not refer to a Visa card implanted in your head or a chip secretly hidden away in the new flu vaccine. Feel free to leave a comment with your favorite modern interpretation of the Mark of the Beast. In fact, 666 is not an “unlucky number.” It is not the devil’s number and there is nothing to fear. One famous Christian owned hobby store will give you a penny discount if your total comes to $6.66. I will admit there was a house near where i grew up that had the street number 666; we called it “the devil’s house,” but that was (mostly) a joke. Readers of Revelation need to check their modern conspiracy theories and focus on what John intended to communicate by the mark of the beast and the number 666. Here is an older post with more on the number.

Like everything else in Revelation, any attempt to understand what the mark of the beast is (or is not) must start with the Old Testament background. In Ezekiel 9 the Lord instructs a man clothed in linen to “pass through the city, through Jerusalem, and put a mark on the foreheads of the men who sigh and groan over all the abominations that are committed in it.”  Those who do not receive this mark are slaughtered. The mark is the letter tav, the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet. Moshe Greenberg points out similarities to the mark on the doorpost in Egypt at Passover (Exod 12:23) or the mark on Aaron’s head the forehead (Exod 28:38; Greenberg, Ezekiel 1-20; AB, 177).  It is also possible this marking is a parody of the Jewish practice of binding scripture on the hand or forehead during prayer (phylacteries).

The beast is not the only character in Revelation marking his followers. In the very next paragraph after the beast marks his followers his name, the Lord marks the 144,000 with the name of the Lamb and his Father on their foreheads (14:1). Later in the book, the servants of the Lamb in the New Jerusalem have his name on their foreheads (22:4). The Great Whore has a name tattooed on her head (Mystery Babylon), just as Christ bears a name no one knows but he himself (19:12). The words “King of kings and Lord of Lords” are written on his robe and thigh of the rider in 19:16 (Aune, 2:734).

What is the Mark of the Beast? People were marked in the ancient world for any number of things. For example, runaway slaves or captured soldiers might be branded or tattooed with a mark indicating their status.  Third Maccabees 2:27-29 describes steps taken against Alexandrian Jews, including being branded with an ivy leaf, a symbol of the worship of Dionysus. (See also these posts on Apostasy in Third Maccabees and The Incident with the Elephants.)

Third Maccabees 2:27-29  He proposed to inflict public disgrace on the Jewish community, and he set up a stone on the tower in the courtyard with this inscription: 28 “None of those who do not sacrifice shall enter their sanctuaries, and all Jews shall be subjected to a registration involving poll tax and to the status of slaves. Those who object to this are to be taken by force and put to death; 29 those who are registered are also to be branded on their bodies by fire with the ivy-leaf symbol of Dionysus, and they shall also be reduced to their former limited status.”

The noun translated mark (χάραγμα) refers to something that is engraved stamped or etched, such as an inscription or a coin (BDAG). Acts 17:29 uses the word for an idol, “formed by the art of men.” But it is also used for written letters or an endorsement on a document, like an official signature or stamp (BrillDAG). As a modern analogy, this is similar to an officially embossed notary stamp. So the physical mark could be a brand or tattoo, or an official endorsement of some kind.

Because the mark permits buying and selling, many commentators on Revelation see the mark as limiting participation in economic life to those who have completed their obligations of emperor worship. Greg Beale, for example, states “The mark is clearly figurative of the ways in which the state keeps check on whether people submit to compulsory idol worship” (Revelation, 715).

Regardless of the background, the mark represents the final act of loyalty to the beast. By marking themselves, the people are accepting the Beast as their lord and savior and rejecting God. Those that refuse the mark are making their declaration for God and against the system of the Beast. And like the examples of Daniel and his friends, those who refuse the mark must be willing to die on account of this refusal to acknowledge the power and authority of the beast and his kingdom.

The mystery of this passage is in verse 17-18. The mark of the beast is the name of the beast, or the number of his name, 666. There are no numbers in many ancient languages, so letters sometimes substituted as numbers.  A=1, B=2, etc. For example, there is a famous graffiti in Pompeii that reads “I love her whose number is 545.”  Jewish Gematria found all sorts of meanings of words scripture by converting words to numbers and back again.

John invites the reader to figure this out, knowing that the name adds up to 666, who might this be? In the early church there were several suggested names, including a Greek word meaning “to deny,” meaning that the name of the Beast was denial of the Lord. The full Latin title used on coins of Domitian, the emperor at the time of John, allegedly adds up to 666. But the most common suggestion is the number 666 refers to Nero Caesar, but in the Hebrew spelling of the name.

It may be best to conclude that John and his readers knew the clue that unlocked the mystery of the number and who it referred to, and that we are unable to figure it out with any certainty today.

Whatever the mark is, it represents a final declaration of loyalty. At this point in the plot of Revelation, one is either for God or against him.

33 thoughts on “What is the Mark of the Beast? – Revelation 13:16-18

    • Funny story: I first moved to Grand Rapids, Michigan in the early 1980s, started my undergraduate degree in 1982. Zonvervan had a kind of factory outline store at that time, remainders and defective books (I had an NIV with the misprint Galations, leather bound NT for $5).

      They had a huge stack of a book promoting the UPC code as the Mark of the Beast (with hilariously bad cover art). Must have been a thousand copies stacked up by the checkout in a tower, $1 a copy. I doubt they sold many, the tower was there for a long long time. Nowadays people just put up a blog to promote crazy ideas.

      • I’m 10 minutes north of Big Rapids. You have my email whenever I post, correct? I would be interested to get together with you sometime, as I don’t know anyone personally that has the same level of interest or knowledge about many of these topics about extra-biblicial writings and other historical topics related to early Christianity and Israel. I’m in Grand Rapids frequently, as I know several brothers in the Lord down there and my business supply is from there. So, send me an email if you are interested in meeting sometime.

    • Revelation 13:18 Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six. We know that mans number is six We know that there will be a one world Government. Here’s my study. there will be a man over the world economy, Government, and relegion. Since man’s number is six that will make the mark of the beast six, six, six since they will all be controlled by satan.

  1. I personally believe there’s three beast that the Bible speaks of I think the three are ; money, power, religion . I think the mark of the beast is currency Bible says all will take its mark, or you can’t buy sell or trade . I believe is that everyone who has received money which we all know has the face of the many presidents which means power and the all seeing eye and the inscriptions in god we trust that’s on the back of the 1.00 bill so everyone who has uptained money through buying selling or trading has take the mark of the beast . No where dose it say you will be killed for not taking the mark what it means is that if you do not receive money , which for many means power then you will be great suffering because you will not be able to eat , drink , shelter , some won’t get medical treatment , many will die from exposer , starvation , poor health . One of the beast which has seven heads coming out of the sea is the power and Kingdom of religious leaders and church’s that gain money , power , and dictatorship over those who seek refuge. The anti christ are those who are denying gods love and truth they are many not one the many anti christ will rise up which will be the power of some churches , political leaders, cults, idols these are those who have denying god but walk around claiming to be a god through there power and there authorities over other people setting up in the temple of god meaning us the body of Christ and walking around action like they are god through self righteousness, domination, dictatorship , control, deception, greed, etc these people do not claim to be Jesus or Christ infant they reject god and Jesus all together they are there own god . The anti christ and the false prophet and the devil who deceived the entire world is not one person or one man that’s impossible to do it’s is the deception of those who falsely accuse believers of believing a life or false teaching it is those who teach cult driven belief through the name of Christ with the intent to deceive and falsely lead others into a trap of lies and destruction, the devil is the mind and the power in which these false prophets use to deceive and fear gods people into believing that god has not saved them but condemned them to hell or to a place of torment for all eternity, the anti christ is those who reject Christ and his love and the devil is the deceiver of all mankind because the devil is the mind the thoughts , the fears , emotions, the doubt , the deception of gods truth so the Bible said they and all liars would be casted into the lake of fire which the second death , the lake of fire is not a literal lake or fire it’s is metaphor for meaning all that is of the flesh and earth will burn all that is of sin and defilement will burn including , all that is of lies , false teachings and all abominations will burn , those things will be burnt and new things will be replaced in the spirit which the spirit of truth , love , salvation , redemption and internal life , for no one can enter the kingdoms of heaven except through Christ so we know that the Bible says wages of sin is death not hell and internal life is through Christ our lord and the Bible says we are saved by god mercy and grace alone for all fall short of his grace and no man is worthy of his kingdom but because he has given us grace through his love and mercy we are saved , Christ paid the price on the cross so all may be save he did not come to condemn the earth but to save it .

  2. What’s marking the world now is
    C-3
    O-15
    R-18
    O-15
    N-14
    A-1
    CORONA 6 LETTERS ADDED UP66=666

  3. That doesn’t make sense…you can’t stop there…you must continue at least to Revelation 20.

  4. If u do not get the vaccine u will not be able to buy food go to your local market travel in the air . Your restrictions will limit your travel completely . That my friend is the mark of the beast !!!!

  5. Right now they are not requiring the vaccine, but I believe that they will use it in the future that you have to receive it. I think about the mark people believing it is a micro chip. Just haven’t figured it all out. I am sure that the visions that they received about what was to come were very confusing. I can’t imagine seeing what they were seeing during those times. With the technology we have now I am sure they could not comprehend it completely. I sometimes wonder if the “mark” isn’t a bit more simple…our cell phones or at least an app on them. This is something that everyone already has and it is “in most cases” in the right hand. As far as the forehead I’m thinking face recognition, this is something they use now even to open your cell phone so it could easily be used to buy and sell. Not saying it is true, just a thought.

  6. The book of revelation is written to the church. It’s a spiritual mark, symbolic, The forehead representing the mind, the thoughts and the right hand the will, the works. Just as those the mark of God is a spiritua seal, not a literal physical mark. Who is our hearts and minds set on? who do we serve? We are told to write Gods’ laws on our hearts, and symbolically we write them with our hand. Same with the mark of the beast. God’s seal of the Holy Spirit is number 7. Falling short and idolizing man and the world’s system is # 6. Buying and selling is talking about in the church, here is a call for wisdom, the book of proverbs. 23;23 buying and selling the truth, being redeemed/purchased by Christ. But in the apostate church, it will be false buying and selling, making merchandise of men. Real Christians won’t take the mark which is the character of the harlot church. True followers of Jesus will be shut out of the church for speaking truth for saying “Repent! Be Sanctified! Deliverance” The apostate church will hate them & call them judgemental. Rev 13:17 is the ONLY verse that talks about buying and selling and the mark, right? The bible says every matter needs to be established by the witness of 2 or 3, yet people are living in fear over this one verse.
    Lets say its a physical mark, and times are really bad. People are scared and start coming to the Lord. A young woman, single w 4 kids just gave her life to Jesus and is scared. The mark comes out and she is told “take the Mark or you cant buy food, clothes, medicine for your kids. Take it and renounce Jesus and Worship the beast” She is scared for her family, her faith is weak and she gives in out of fear. Do you really think God is going to test her faith to make an eternal decision out of fear and survival?? Make her choose over food and her children? NO God is merciful. She is already sealed with the Holy Spirit and can still love God in spirit. They cant change that? This is the problem trying to literalize The Book of Revelations its strange and scary, its suppose to give us hope so we are not afraid

    They would have to get us to totally deny, forsake, reject & renounce Jesus in our hearts and worship the beast. They can’t! Once you truly love Christ and sealed with His spirit there is no turning away, no one can snatch you from Gods Hand. People will say what about Matt 10:33 “whoever denies Jesus before men, I will deny before the father” which means to reject him and not care in rebellion. Peter denied Jesus 3 times out of fear and went on to do great things for the Kingdom.
    This is why it’s a symbolic mark, we have already been vaccinated, chipped, tracked, numbered, spied on the internet, they control our money, have our DNA, infiltrated the churches….. We are already in the world’s system, we cant really do much outside it unless you want to live in the wild. Our spirits are already sealed if we are truly in Christ and doing the Fathers will. Be blessed in Jesus Name

  7. The Gates Foundation financed the development of a quantum dot tattoo vaccine delivery system, which was completed and announced by MIT and Rice University in December 2019 (and is still visible on Rice’s website). It consists of a patch which is pushed against the back of the hand. On the patch are micro needles which deliver the nano gene therapy treatment (the mRNA “vaccine”) and an invisible ink, called Luciferase, which stays on the surface of the skin and, when exposed to a certain phone app, “lights up” providing information on vaccine status as well as other info which can bs encoded, such as bank account info. The ink only lasts for a number of months, requiring a booster. Should it get to the point you need the jab to operate in society, with today’s technology this is how you could police it.

    I think this fits the MOTB bill as good as anything, what do you think?

  8. I believe it will be connected to Big Pharma. Rev. 18:23. Read it in Greek. The word “sorcery” is Pharmakeia. Modern pharmaceuticals were born out of Rockefeller “medicine”. They are occultists and also aggressively destroyed naturopathic medicine over the years. Their symbol is the caduceus (two snakes on the pole), which is not the symbol of medicine. It’s the magic wand of Hermes. He is the god of tricksters, thieves, merchants, and alchemy, the Roman god Mercury, the messenger and some others, but not the god of medicine. Asclepius was the god of medicine with one snake on the pole, like Moses’ serpent. Most of their drugs are hocus pocus and not based on real health. God gave us an immune system and if we eat Babylon food (read Daniel 1 and how he rejected the kings delicacies), we will suffer the plagues. We get back to real food, homesteading, learn how to process our own food, kitchen skills, gardening, etc to stay healthy. We come out of Babylonian healthcare system. I like the book Nourishing Traditions but there are many others in similar vein. God bless.

  9. Hi Philip, I am surprised you don’t offer the consensus view on 666, ‘Neron Caesar’ which also explains the Oxyrhynchus variant 616 when you spell the name the alternative way as ‘Nero Caesar’.

  10. Hi Philip, I am surprised you don’t mention the broad consensus view, that 666 is the gematria/isopsephism value of both ‘beast’ and ‘Neron Caesar’ when the Greek words are written in Hebrew letters. This also explains the Oxyrhynchus textual variant, since ‘of the beast’ and ‘Nero Caesar’ add up to 616. Is there any reason for this omission?

  11. Quite the imagination. COMPLETLY WRONG and actually funny. IN your forehead! What you stated is something an atheist or a false prophet who purposely utters Blasphemes at the Bible and the Prophets of Jesus Christ.

  12. It would seem that 666 is well understood to mean the mark of the beast (as in Satan).
    Ever heard of the Bible scriptures that talk about Satan being the ruler of this world and how the world is in the hands or power of the wicked one?
    I think at the end of the day the ones with the mark on them are gonna be the people who love this world, work towards supporting the system and can’t wait to get back to their beloved “normal” as it’s what they live and breathe.
    It would seemingly fit also with the modern narrative of science and vaccines being (in their view) the ONLY way back to normality.
    They’re even trying to impose vaccines onto people who have already had COVID 19 and got well.

    Or in other words, people who are accepting science over God and even over common sense (a sense that isn’t too common nowadays).

    God has previously told mankind both in the old testament and new testament about abstaining from blood and that killing people (both born and unborn) is bad. The scientific community is obsessed with using morally forbidden practices such as using blood for everything from transfusing into others to harvesting stem cells to making and testing vaccines on aborted feteus lines from actual dead babies from the past.
    Oh! And don’t forget the almost complete acceptance and promotion of “evolution” as taught by the scientific community which is predominantly made up of atheists and lax religious people who let them get away with their preferred narrative.

    Not looking for an argument as I don’t know how every Biblical thing is going to play out or when, but the information is out there and worth considering in its entirety.
    After all, the Revelation scripture does call for the reader to use discernment.
    Discernment isn’t a purely academic process but has a gut instinct component also to consider.

  13. The noun translated mark (χάραγμα) refers to something that is engraved, stamped, etched. A puncture in your arm via needle may satisfy that. Mark on your hand is your works but it could also reference the needle in your arm since arm and hand may be the same word. This vaccine changes your genetic makeup, during the days of Noah the fallen changed the genetic makeup of man, animal, and even insects (Book of Monsters and Genesis). Noah was chosen for his love of the Father and because he was “pure in his generations”, don’t change your DNA. The bow that conquers in Revelations is a thin cloth, like the masks that people wear. Viruses are .5 microns to 5 microns in size, the only mask that filters this is a N95 that’s fitted for your face. If it’s not N95 and it’s not fitted to your face then you are wearing a lie. After Adam and Eve believed the serpent over the Father they covered themselves with clothes hiding the image of the Creator, just as people hide their face with the mask. I’m just trying to figure things out to save my soul and my wife and kids souls. If I’m wrong about any of this or you have any other clues I would like to know.

  14. Yes you are completely wrong about this. Looked at in the context of history, Covid and the vaccine are relatively unimportant (compared to eg the Black Death which killed perhaps one third of Europe).

    The Book of Revelation is not some predictive blueprint for our times; to think so is both to ignore its context and presume that our own age is the most important in all of history. The vaccine does not ‘change your genetic makeup’ either.

    To save your soul you simply need to trust in God, that Jesus has died and risen for you. To seek to ‘do’ anything else means you are trying to earn your own salvation.

    Do read my commentary on The Book of Revelation published by IVP in the Tyndale series for more information.

    • Thanks Ian…I speaking in Southern California this week and have encountered this “vaccine is the mark” thing several times in the last few days. I tried to tell them when I was a kid it was the UPC code, so eventually some other technology will come a long for paranoid people to claim is the mark.

  15. Yes it does change your makeup, I’ve looked into it extensively. Your body will no longer be in the image of God. To think we are not at the end is ridiculous, the evil happening now is worse than the evil in the days of Noah. I said nothing about the virus because the virus is extremely weak, it’s all about the vaccine. The Bible is ‘God breathed’, revelations and Ezra 2 are blueprints, to say they are not is to say God’s word is wrong. You said completely wrong but you didn’t speak to the other things I spoke of. If I am completely wrong show me so completely. When people thought it was the UPC code that didn’t account for a ‘mark’ in your hand or arm, this does. To save your soul trusting that Jesus died for you is not enough. You need to trust in Jesus, Repent, and not receive the mark.

  16. I am sorry Mark: my wife is a qualified doctor, and she is clear that what you say is nonsense. We have been using vaccine technology for decades, and it has been a great blessing in ridding the world of smallpox and other terrible diseases. This has nothing at all to do with ‘the image of God’ in you, which is not about biology.

    It is difficult to take your accusation about ‘God’s word’ seriously, when you cannot even get the title of a biblical book right. It is the Book of Revelation (singular), not ‘revelations’. The first sentence starts Ἀποκάλυψις Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, ‘The revelation of Jesus Christ…’. John’s testimony teaches us about Jesus, not about distant future vaccines.

    If you think this is the worst time in history, please do some research. Try the Justinian plague, or the black death, or read about Genghis Khan, or the Spanish flu.

    Please seek the truth. Don’t take refuge in poorly researched conspiracy theories; they will not save you.

  17. The Black Plague symptoms are consistent with mercury toxicity: fever, chills, weakness, tremors, discoloration of fingertips and toes, bleeding gums, swollen lymph nodes. People were more likely burning coal to cook and heat their homes and breathing mercury vapors, which are highly toxic. But it was blamed perhaps on a bacteria. Scurvy was blamed on a germ until they learned about vitamin C deficiencies. Smallpox was reduced with better hygiene, cleaner water, and improved nutrition. The Spanish Flu was first recognized at Ft. Riley, Kansas at the same time as experimental vaccines were given to soldiers. Some passed out and died on the spot, while others got sick later. Also, war-time conditions, stress, poverty, malnutrition, and nerve gases used in the war (WW 1) probably also contributed to ill health. They called it the Spanish Flu for no good reason and had nothing to do with Spain whatsoever. Toxins in the environment are generally ignored as a cause of disease. Today, 14-19 million workers are employed by small-scale gold mining operations and around 30% suffer from chronic mercury vapors. Coal miners also experience symptoms of mercury toxicity. Millions of people have toxicity due to mercury amalgam tooth fillings and it causes many ill effects like kidney disease and auto-immune disorders and has been linked to autism. The Pharma industry makes a killing blaming viruses while superstitious people believe everything they say because they have authority and naively go along. Natural remedies for these ills might be things like supplemental selenium, which helps block mercury absorption. Removing amalgams in severe cases. Eating bone broth to provide glycine which is needed for glutathione production, our most powerful anti-oxidant, these kinds of things.

  18. “The book of revelation is written to the church.”

    That is silliness with no basis. None of the Bible was written exclusively for the church. That is very anti-biblical logic.

    “It’s a spiritual mark, symbolic, The forehead representing the mind, the thoughts and the right hand the will, the works.”

    Where do you find a basis for this other than your opinion?

    “Just as those the mark of God is a spiritua seal, not a literal physical mark. Who is our hearts and minds set on? who do we serve? We are told to write Gods’ laws on our hearts, and symbolically we write them with our hand. Same with the mark of the beast. God’s seal of the Holy Spirit is number 7. Falling short and idolizing man and the world’s system is # 6. Buying and selling is talking about in the church, here is a call for wisdom, the book of proverbs. 23;23 buying and selling the truth, being redeemed/purchased by Christ. But in the apostate church, it will be false buying and selling, making merchandise of men. Real Christians won’t take the mark which is the character of the harlot church. True followers of Jesus will be shut out of the church for speaking truth for saying “Repent! Be Sanctified! Deliverance” The apostate church will hate them & call them judgemental. Rev 13:17 is the ONLY verse that talks about buying and selling and the mark, right? The bible says every matter needs to be established by the witness of 2 or 3, yet people are living in fear over this one verse.”

    You use a lot of words, but they ultimately fail to provide any kind of logical grounding for your conclusion. The Bible NEVER implied that the words of God would be subjected to 2-3 witnesses. That’s absurd. It states that in matters of men when determining if someone has commited a crime, you must have witnesses. To say “God didnt say it enough times so that rule doesn’t count” discounts half of scripture.
    What a damming judgement to make.

    “Lets say its a physical mark, and times are really bad. People are scared and start coming to the Lord. A young woman, single w 4 kids just gave her life to Jesus and is scared. The mark comes out and she is told “take the Mark or you cant buy food, clothes, medicine for your kids. Take it and renounce Jesus and Worship the beast” She is scared for her family, her faith is weak and she gives in out of fear. Do you really think God is going to test her faith to make an eternal decision out of fear and survival?? Make her choose over food and her children? NO God is merciful. She is already sealed with the Holy Spirit and can still love God in spirit. They cant change that? This is the problem trying to literalize The Book of Revelations its strange and scary, its suppose to give us hope so we are not afraid”

    This sounds an awful lot like an argument that “God doesn’t expect that we would be willing to SUFFER for Him!”
    Where oh where do you come up with such a conclusion? Even with your nonsense arguement of things needing to be repeated to count, that is something that is many times made clear. He died for us. We will suffer in his name. He never promised to protect us from an uncomfortable earthly life or death, he promised that greater things were yet to come to those who remain steadfast.

    “They would have to get us to totally deny, forsake, reject & renounce Jesus in our hearts and worship the beast. They can’t! Once you truly love Christ and sealed with His spirit there is no turning away, no one can snatch you from Gods Hand. People will say what about Matt 10:33 “whoever denies Jesus before men, I will deny before the father” which means to reject him and not care in rebellion. Peter denied Jesus 3 times out of fear and went on to do great things for the Kingdom.
    This is why it’s a symbolic mark, we have already been vaccinated, chipped, tracked, numbered, spied on the internet, they control our money, have our DNA, infiltrated the churches….. We are already in the world’s system, we cant really do much outside it unless you want to live in the wild. Our spirits are already sealed if we are truly in Christ and doing the Fathers will. Be blessed in Jesus Name”

    Peter suffered severely for his denial. He was forgiven to be sure, but you are very wrong in assuming you can do anything, and as long as you love God- everything will be OK.
    Adam and Eve surely died. There was no symbolism in God telling them the outcome of their decisions.
    Those who bear the mark, when the words are CLEARLY spelled out and known, will suffer a similar fate. To simply state that everything is simply symbolism is both arrogant and without grounding.

    • You were not addressing me, but you said “’The book of revelation is written to the church.’ That is silliness with no basis. None of the Bible was written exclusively for the church. That is very anti-biblical logic.”

      To be fair, Revelation 1:4 says “John to the seven churches that are in Asia” and chapters 2-3 are clearly addressed to those seven real churches.

  19. I just recently was told the letters C O V I D…Add up to 66…and the word covid itself has 6 letters….666…

Leave a Reply