When Paul encounters the risen Jesus on the road to Damascus, he immediately goes to the synagogues in Damascus (Acts 9:19-25). These are the synagogues which had likely informed the Sanhedrin that Hellenistic Jews were proclaiming that Jesus was the Messiah and were expecting Paul to arrive and argue against the Hellenists who have recently arrived from Jerusalem with this new idea that Jesus of Nazareth was the Messiah.
After his encounter with Jesus, we might have thought Paul would have returned to Jerusalem and immediately confronted the Sanhedrin and the High Priest, the very people approved of Paul’s mission to Damascus in the first place. But he does not return to Jerusalem for three years and, according to his own testimony on Gal 1:16-17, when he did go up to Jerusalem, it was only for a short visit of fifteen days.
As Martin Hengel points out, Jerusalem is where the apostles are to be found, not Galilee or elsewhere in Judea. If Jerusalem was the focal point of the messianic preaching of the apostles, why did Paul not immediately go there and work with Peter and John in the Temple courts. Rather than go to Jerusalem, Paul goes into “Arabia” for three years.
Hengel and Schwemer suggest three reasons for Paul’s activities immediately after his conversion. First, Paul was a zealous persecutor of the church and he transferred that zeal into preaching the gospel. He met a resurrected and glorified Jesus who commissioned him as the apostle to the Gentiles. It is only natural that he would want to immediately begin this new task, given to him by his Savior.
Second, belief in an imminent return of Jesus meant that evangelistic activity needed to cover as wide an area as possible. Evangelism in Jerusalem was already underway and the apostles were stationed there to continue their work. Later in his career Paul will constantly move out into un-reached areas of the world, creating strategic bases in larger cities from which the local churches can continue the work of evangelism. For Paul, Arabia was an unreached area and he was uniquely suited to the task as a Hellenistic Jew.
Third, it would have been extremely dangerous to return since he has “switched sides” and now was a passionate supported of Jesus as the Messiah. While Paul is not described as avoiding persecution, he may have thought that it would be better to have success elsewhere rather than go and be executed by his former masters!
Martin Hengel and Anna Maria Schwemer, Paul Between Damascus and Antioch (Louisville: Westminster / John Knox, 1997), 94.