John 15:1 – I Am the True Vine

Owning a vineyard is a labor intensive business. To grow grapes for making wine the owner of the vineyard must invest a great deal of time and money to cultivate vines in the right soil, in the right location, hoping for perfect weather and sunlight in order to bring in a good harvest with is fit for making wine. It takes years for a vineyard to produce sufficient fruit to make a good wine.  Sometimes it takes as many as ten years before new vines are mature and ready for wine-making. During the process the vineyard owner must carefully prune his vines and care for the daily, inspecting for disease or pests. There is a joke among vineyard owners: how do you make a small fortune with a winery? Start with a large fortune and buy a winery.

Vineyards were lucrative in the ancient world, and wine-making was a well known art to most people in the ancient world. It is little wonder that the image of a vineyard was associated with God’s care for his people. Like a shepherd with his sheep, everyone knew the kind of work went into a well-maintained vineyard and the production of good wine.

In this series of parable-like sayings in John 15, Jesus describes God as the owner of a vineyard in which Jesus himself is the vine and his disciples are the branches. This is a vivid image for the relationship of Jesus and his disciples as well as the on-going relationship of Jesus to his disciples in all ages. We will see in these verses Jesus’ intimate relationship with his disciples will result in both friendship with Jesus, but also enmity with the world.

This is Jesus’ final “I am” statement in the Gospel of John. As with the others, Jesus is evoking a very clear metaphor from the Hebrew Bible and applying it to himself. In the Hebrew Bible, Israel is described as a vineyard planted by the Lord (Isa 5:1-7, Ps 80:8-16, Jer 2:21, Ezek 15, Hos 10:1). This metaphor is used in Second Temple Period literature as well (Sirach 24:17-27; 2 Bar. 39.7).

In each of these texts God is the one who planted the vineyard, then he entrusted that vineyard to his people Israel. There is an emphasis on the loving care with which God planting the vineyard, providing all that it needed to succeed But Israel did not fulfill their role as custodians of the vineyard. As a result it is destroyed. In Isaiah this is a prophecy of the coming destruction of Jerusalem, as is the worship reflection on Israel’s history in Psalm 80.

Jesus used the image of a vineyard in a parable during his teaching in the Temple just a few days prior to the last supper (Mark 12:1-12). In this parable he makes a similar point, that God is the one who established Israel as a vineyard and he is the owner of the vineyard. When the Messiah came to the people of God, he expected fruit but there was none. There are several parables which describe the eschatological judgment as a time of harvest, when the wheat will be collected and stored in the barn, but the weeds will be gathered and burned on a fire.

The metaphor is adapted here in John 15 and applied to the disciples as a New Israel. The owner if the vineyard is still God, but Jesus develops the idea of the vine in much more detail than the Hebrew Bible. The vines and branches have an intimate relationship – there is no life for the branch apart from the vine, it must remain in the vine in order to have life.

But the fate of the branch is also tied to the vine. Since Jesus will suffer, so too will his followers. Jesus knows that the sort of abuse he is about to endure will soon be transferred to his disciples. If they abide in him, then they will suffer just like he does.

Jesus has redefined the “vineyard” as himself and he will succeed in fulfilling the covenant as the true Israel. While Israel failed as the custodians of the vineyard, Jesus will succeed and his twelve disciples constitute a new Israel.

26 thoughts on “John 15:1 – I Am the True Vine

  1. How does Paul’s twist to the metaphor add to the overall picture in Romans 11? Paul uses an olive tree for his example but is it still the same metaphor?

  2. I think that this is a case of apples and oranges, or better, grapes and olives. The metaphor in Rom 11 using an olive tree, rather than a vineyard. I am not aware of “olive tree = Israel” as a live metaphor in Second Temple Judaism, but it might be out there. Part of what is happening in John is that Jesus is redefining key metaphors used for God or Israel in the Hebrew Bible as referring to himself. God is the Shepherd in the HB, but in John the “Good Shepherd” is Jesus.

    So, similar metaphor, but I am not sure they are sharing a common root (so to speak). OTOH, perhaps Paul is riffing on Jesus’ theme of vines and branches, but I would need to be convinced of that.

  3. This metaphor is very important to understand that God is the owner of the vineyard, Jesus is the vine, and we are the branches. But as Kostenberger points out, “it is not believers in Jesus who are depicted as the vine. Rather, the vine is Jesus. Jesus Himself is therefore the new Israel,” (Kostenberger, 149). Some may think that he is talking about the disciples, but John is talking about Jesus himself being the vine. Not only that, but he is laying the way to show people that Jesus is now the new Israel. After Jesus death and Resurrection, there is a new covenant and a new Israel and Jesus represents that. We are to live life like Christ and to be the branches that he calls us to be because we are in relationship with him. Without being in a relationship with God and Jesus, no fruit will grow in our lives and we will not be demonstrating that Jesus is the vine and the new Israel. I believe this verse applies to all believers, not just disciples. I think this whole passage connects well with the verse in 2 Corinthians as it says, “therefore if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creature; the old things passed away; behold, new things have come,” (2 Corinthians 5:17, NIV). We are in Christ just as we are branches on a vine, and with Jesus being the new Israel, the old things have passed away and the new has come. Jesus is the new and we are to live according to what he has done.

  4. The “I am” statement that Jesus presents here is one of my favorites in the Gospel of John. I love plants and I have many that I have collected and I work hard to keep them alive and well. The plants I have are some of the easiest to keep alive and they already present me with a lot of work. I can only imagine keeping a whole vineyard in a healthy state and producing a good harvest. God has a lot of work to do, making sure that His “crop” stays alive and healthy. When Jesus came, He established a new covenant in which He replaced Israel as the vine (Kostenberger, 149) and through this, we all were presented our best hope of staying healthy as the branches. It is impossible for us all to produce anything healthy in our lives without our connection to the vine, our source of life. Jesus tells us in John 14 that He is the way, truth, and life (John 14:6). By Him, we are able to grow and have true life.

  5. I would agree that it does take quite a bit of work and commitment to produce a good vineyard for a winery. A farmer cannot always guarantee that he will have a good year of growing. There might be one or two years of being fruitful, but then something happens like a wildfire, hail, an earthquake, or some other natural disaster that could destroy things. Sometimes, for nature to be revived, nature needs to be destroyed in order to be renewed. Israel was God’s original vineyard, but when they did not take care, God sent another nation to destroy Israel. With Israel being destroyed, Jesus was given the opportunity to show the world how good and fruitful he could be as the true vine. Israel needed to be renewed and revived. In the Old Testament, there were a few times God’s people needed to be revived in one way or another. During Moses’s time, the Israelites gave into their temptations. The ones who sinned against God were punished by not being allowed into the Promised Land so before the Israelites were allowed in, the old had to be die and the new Israelites had to be born. Israel continuously failed to produce fruit so Jesus had to come and weed out all the bad fruit so that the vineyard could once again thrive.

  6. Jesus definitely put a different twist in describing the parable of the vineyard. John ‘s gospel is rich with Jesus’ parables, and reading about the vineyard reminds me a lot about my grandpa’s farm. I think almost all aspects of farming is challenging, and you may not always get rewarded for all the hard work you put into the farm. Though my grandpa had some bad years, he never gave up on his farm because it was drenched with his labor and hard work. He continued to find new ways to get rid of pests and rodents that ruined his crops. Just like in the vineyard parable, God never gave up on his people but sent Jesus as a solution to be the channel into whose He’s blessings flow and who bears lots of fruit (Kostenberger, 159). The work which God placed on man was too much but also filled with corruption and sin, which didn’t allow for good fruit to yield. God has no use for bad fruit and recognized that in order to get the results He wanted, His son would have to replace Israel as His people for salvation. As mentioned in your post, Jesus has given the vineyard a new meaning and now takes the place of Israel.

  7. In John 15 the theology of the Vine and the Branches gives a metaphor that those who were hearing Jesus speak would have understood. Jesus was known for speaking in parables and using metaphors. This help provide an illustration that would help the listeners remember and understand his teachings. This also gave them something to connect his teachings and theology with. People in the ancient world also in modern times can understand exactly what Jesus was/is saying. In (v.1) Jesus says that he is the true vine and his Father is the gardener. Jesus is saying that only through him the branches grow and bear good fruit. And his Father (God), is the gardener. And whoever does not bear good fruit will be cut from the vine. Anyone who confesses that Christ is their savior but does not act in accordance with Scripture then they will be cut from the vine.

  8. This I am statement talking about how Jesus is the true vine is a great description of what Jesus came to do. This description of Jesus as the true vine if you think about it makes a lot of sense. If we are in and follow Jesus will be a part of vine and will bear fruit through being in Jesus. But in the same way if you reject him and the things that he has sacrificed for you, you will be cut off and is the dead part of the vine. No life is there if we are not in and follow the plans that God has in our life. When we try to take control of our decisions and our life, we become the dead part of the vine which chokes out the living part. We cannot live a healthy and successful life without God in the middle of it. But in that to have a good ripe crop we need to work at it and nurture our relationship with God. We do not want bad crops because we do not work at our relationship with God. To have a good strong and healthy vine we need to have our roots in Jesus as he is the only way to get to God.

  9. The main theme that is usually pulled out of this passage is that Christians, in order to remain steadfast in their faith, must be intimately connected to Christ. As Jesus abides in the Father, Christians must also intimate this and abide in Jesus. While this is true, something very crucial is ignored and neglected with this interpretation. When we receive Christ into our lives by believing in Him, we are not merely accepting a certain kind of doctrine or dogma; rather, we are bringing into our lives a certain quality of life–particularly, the life of Christ. In other words, as we are sealed with the Holy Spirit, our lives will inevitably begin to look like His. This means that whatever Christ experienced when He was on the earth, we will also experience. The vine, while it does denote blessedness and peace and fruitfulness, also implies suffering and trials and tribulation, which are indirect blessings, too. Kostenberger makes clear that although God is the owner and Jesus is the vine, this does not exclude us from the suffering that is an integral part of the Christian life. So, let us be warned that as we seek to stay connected to Christ, we are bound to face what He faced while doing His earthly ministry.

  10. I think that it is really interesting to note how common it used to be to own and take care of vineyards. This was the perfect example for Jesus to use because everyone knew about vineyards. Today this is not quite as common to know what it takes to work in one, but in my background knowledge I understood that they were a lot of work. Even though there might be a gap in our knowledge about vineyards, I think that we are still able to understand what it is that Jesus is trying to say here. Jesus still makes the point of his message clear. I also think that it is powerful that this is the last of the “I Am” statements that John goes over. This metaphor that Jesus tells is one that states how unique the relationship the branches have with the vine; so, does God have such a unique relationship with mankind. Jesus is explaining that He is the giver of life. He is the one who gets to decide when pruning is needed to the good branches and when others need to be cut off. The branches much also stay in contact or relationship with the vine if they want to be able to prosper and live, because without the vine they will perish. Jesus is using this to tell of His relationship with New Israel. He is telling them that there will be trials and hardships that they must go through, but just like the vineyard must be pruned, it is necessary in order to stay in that relationship with God.

  11. I never knew how labor intensive it is the own a vineyard. I had always wondered why there were certain areas that were more known for their wine than others. It makes sense now though that I know that it takes the right location, soil, and weather to grow great wine. I find it interesting that on this side of Lake Michigan we are able to grow vineyards to make wine, however, in Wisconsin, they cannot really grow vineyards. (Long) It is interesting that just being on the correct side of a body of water or facing the correct direction is a determining factor in how well the vineyard grows and produces. In terms of the Bible, it makes sense why Jesus used the idea of himself as the vine; the ancient world was very aware of vineyards and the work that went into them. They understood that the branches would come from the vine (Jesus). The branch cannot survive by itself. It must be attached to the vine to have any life, which is what Jesus wanted them to get. They cannot say they are believers of Jesus if their branch is not attached to him. Whatever hardships or diseases (or crucifixion) the vine suffers, the branch will suffer as well. Growing a vineyard is not always a positive one, sometimes hardships are needed to prune out the weak branches. Could this have been what Jesus was getting at?

  12. Throughout the Bible, and even much through Jesus’ life we see this translation of spiritual matters into human terms. What I am implying by this is that Jesus needed a way for us humans to understand what he is saying and be able to apply it to our lives. Jesus is entirely perfect, how would we be able to understand anything he says when we have been fully flawed since the beginning? It is through translations like this in John 15, that we see Jesus communicating a message through a means by which humans understand it. Jesus is using the message and example of the vine and branches because of the context in which he was teaching. He was at a vineyard, speaking to people that knew what the purpose of a vineyard was, which made it easy for him to relate his teachings to the people he was speaking to. This is common throughout the Bible, not just in this passage, and quite frankly is the reason humans are able to understand what Jesus says, because being fully man and fully God can translate it into what man can understand.

  13. “I am the true vine, and my Father is the gardener. 2 He cuts off every branch in me that bears no fruit, while every branch that does bear fruit he prunes[a] so that it will be even more fruitful. -John 15:1-2

    Jesus often used human terms so we can understand what he is trying to say spiritually. The vine metaphor is a perfect example of how Jesus used physical things to describe spiritual things. We need to be on fire for God there is not lukewarm. This passage is very clear that he cuts off the parts of the vine that do not produce fruit. This means that we need to be serving God and our lives should be producing the fruit of the Spirit. If we are not producing fruit as followers of Christ then God is going to cut us off. There will be times in our lives where God prunes us so that we can grow closer to him and it might be painful but he is the gardener and he knows what is best for us. I think the key to this passage in John is that we produce fruit and we do that by seeking his word out and applying it to our lives.

  14. I have spent the last three years helping cultivate a new vineyard with the family I am marrying into. I have been there through each stage of the vineyard’s growth, from setting up stakes for the vines, to harvesting full grapes. The process and labor surely do result in an intensive business as Long (2012) states (para. 1). The vineyard that God originally “planted” was Israel. We see God prepare, prune, and cultivate His crop throughout the Old Testament, such as through the Exodus, the time of Judges, and through the Prophets. Eventually, God granted His people authority to care, grow, and cultivate as followers, but they failed miserably. To grow His vineyard back into the fruit-bearing crop He desired, God sent Jesus to establish a new covenant. Through this new covenant, Jesus replaced Israel as the vine (Kostenberger, p. 149). The branches also hold significance as Jesus calls His disciples the branches (John 15:6). The relationship between the vine and the branches is a perfect metaphor for the relationship Christians have with Jesus. We can live because we are ”attached” to Jesus as our savior and this also gives us the ability to grow spiritual fruit. The ESVSB comments on this saying “abide in me means to continue in a daily, personal relationship with Jesus” (p. 2054). Ultimately, God wants a flourishing vineyard and is made possible through Jesus. As the branches, we have the extraordinary honor of producing fruit for the King through Jesus.

  15. Jesus’ last “I am” statement in John 15 is interesting to me. He explains that He is the vine and the disciples are the branches, and there are many meanings behind this aphorism. It was interesting to me how P. Long made the reference that the “fate of the branch is also tied to the vine” (para. 8). He is saying here that because Jesus suffered, the disciples would suffer. I believe this can be tied to 2 Timothy 3:12. “Indeed, all who desire to live a godly life in Christ Jesus will be persecuted” (ESV). Is this saying that everyone who is truly living a godly life will be persecuted? I believe we all go through trials to mold our character and shape our walk with God. Similar ideas can be found in James 1.

  16. Jesus used a lot of different parables and terms that helps us as people to understand the fundamental aspect of his teachings. When you think of something being taught, you simply act upon learning from what you are being told. For instance, Jesus vineyard is a great example of that. Within Jesus teachings he taught a valuable lesson; this teaching taught that in order to harvest a vineyard you must take great care of it. However, most people do not take care of valuable items, and that is why Jesus uses his vineyard as an example. In Jesus teachings I do believe that in order to maintain a vineyard you have to not only take care of it, but to give it the proper well-being just like Jesus did. He taught us to care for one another. For example, Jesus is the vineyard and his disciples are his branches. He is the platform for their growth, just like pastors of a church. The pastor is a vineyard , we as members of the church we are the branches. The bible helps us grow. Therefore, if we do not follow Jesus teachings we are only falling from the great divine and that is Jesus himself.

  17. The metaphor of the vine seems to be something that today’s culture might not be able to grasp without knowledge of the culture during the life of Jesus. I personally did not ever give much thought to how much labor went into this job. Now a days wine is easy to buy off the shelf and you rarely will see the vineyard it comes from. So, this passage has great power to it as it represents Christ but today’s generation seems to misunderstand Christ here. In John 15 verses 1-11 we see the repeated commandment to “abide” in Christ and in God’s love. Although, “abide” here is reflected and portrayed to be as a branch in the vineyard. We as a branch need to be connected to the vine in order to properly feel the love of God and be in God’s presence. After studying this section a little deeper it is imperative that we as Christians try to understand the time and culture that the Bible was written in. By doing this we can have a better grasp in what God is trying to teach and show us through his word.

  18. This passage has always been one of my favorites, as it sends a clear message to believers: “If you remain in me and I in you, you will bear much fruit; apart from me you can do nothing”. Talk about a wake up call – for me at least. This passage really gives credit or ‘proves’ what Jesus said in the chapter before: “I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me” (John 14:6). Apart from him, we have no way, truth, or life. Long’s reflection to this metaphor of the vineyard reminded me of the significance of a wineskin. In the synoptic gospels, Jesus refers to a wineskin as a reminder of the preparation and refining process that the wine goes through (Mat 9:17). It would be foolish to pour new wine into an old wineskin, knowing that it will burst and waste the wine. Referring back to the vineyard, we know that God is very intentional with his vineyard (people) and His care toward it. The further apart we are from Christ, the less fruit we will see. Less fruit = less wine. With the wineskin being an important piece to the preparation of the wine, this adds to the intentionality of the vineyard. God’s desire is for us to abide in Him in order to produce bearable fruit that turns into wine, which all goes through a refining and pruning process. All of this to say, if we find ourselves not experiencing refinement or pruning, we are probably not abiding in the vine. The more we abide in the vine, the Father, the more we will be refined and prepared to produce bearable fruit.

  19. This metaphor of the vine and the branches is important for us to understand. Jesus says that “I am the true vine.” What does that mean exactly? Jesus is the vine and we as his children or creations are the branches. As it is said, “it is not believers in Jesus who are depicted as the vine. Rather, the vine is Jesus. Jesus himself is the new Israel.” (Köstenberger, 149) When I think of this metaphor. I think of Jesus as the teacher. He is teaching and showing us how to honor and glorify his kingdom. As we grow and learn what Jesus is teaching us. It is then when grow and blossom.

    In John 15, we are able to see the relationship that takes place between Jesus and his disciples. We see that Jesus instructs simple and clear instructions for the disciples. As Christians, and the body of the Church we must stay connected, asking Jesus for more of him. When we strive to do the things of this world, we will always fail but when we strive to become more like Christ we grow and learn.

  20. Wine Making is a very detail oriented job, just like how God made every detail about us before we were even created. I never realized the meaning behind the metaphor of the Vineyard. It does show the way faith works in Christianty in a sense. You can look at it in the way of faith in Jesus Christ is like a vineyard and followers of Christ are the vineyard owners. When they have faith in Christ and fellowship with Jesus their Vineyard is growing making the best fruits but when they have little or deteriorating faith in Christ; their vineyard is going to be dry and failing in the winemaking process. When we keep our faith in Christ and continue to grow with Him; our faith expands to more than what we already had. When you are a Christian you don’t stay at the same level of Christianity you were at when you became one. You grow and learn in your faith, expanding your knowledge of Christ.

  21. I appreciated the connection that what the vine experiences affects the branches as well. It prompted me to think deeper about the reverse: the effect that the branches have on the vine. What struck me is that, just like a vine, keeping a fruitless or diseased branch on the vine is more destructive to the whole plant than having that branched removed. Jesus makes the explanation that the fruitless and diseased branches will be cut off from the vine and the fruit-bearing branches will have their useless portions pruned in John 15:2.
    What is concerning to me is the self-destructive tendency of Christians today to cling to the members of the church that God has clearly pruned off. These are referred to by a few different names, and their identification is clear in Scripture (called “false teachers” in 2nd Peter 2). Yet, many of those that clearly fit these descriptions are tolerated and even considered true brothers in Christ by some of Christ’s branches in the name of being long-suffering. I am not saying that they should be cast out from the church with no hope of return, but for the sake of the body certain scripture-mandated measures should be taken to mitigate their destructive power among the weaker believers and reduce their opportunities to continue sinning by leading others astray by their teachings and invitations to join them in their sin, or at least accept their sin as being withing their freedoms in Christ.
    How often as well do we ourselves resist God’s pruning? Jesus clearly stated that it is best that portions of our lives be entirely removed than for them to remain and drag us to sin (Matthew 29-30). A close study of Scripture and a willingness to do what it says, even if it means removing people and portions of our lives that pull us away from following God, is imperative for growing good, pleasing fruit.

  22. This is a really neat story and parable. I never knew of the intensive care that is needed to take care of a vineyard, as well as requiring a large amount of fortune needed to even start one. It is even more incredible for God to set up a “vineyard” for His people Israel, but wistfully they did not take care of it as it was then destroyed. Jesus then took that role of manifests and consummates God’s true purpose for Israel; that he is the archetypal vine, the passage through whom God’s blessings drizzle and who produces much fruit (Köstenberger, p159). In order to produce fruit is to abide in Jesus, and how to do that is to “remain in His words” or “keep His commands”, and to stay in His love and “lay down one’s life” (Long, 128). As the result of observing and obeying Jesus is having the joy of Christ fill the true disciple (Long, p128).

    Overall it is still amazing that God does not give up on us, even though we do not always do what we are told and/or treat Him not in the best way. It still baffles and amazes me how merciful and gracious God is even though we do not deserve it.

  23. Having a vineyard at that time was a very labor-intensive business. The vines need constant attention, the non-producing branches are cut off and burned so that whatever disease or deformation would not infect the rest of the vine. The same is true with the fruitful branches, but in a way that promotes the health of the vine and promotes new growth. The higher the amount of the good branches the better quality the overall vintage will be and the higher the price it can fetch. To yield a final product it can take up to ten years or more. The burning of the non-producing branches creates nutrients that help to replenish the soil, from death comes new life. Owning a vineyard is a costly affair, much as the disciples encountered great persecution when promoting the gospel. If vineyard has large parts that are not yielding a harvestable crop, then they will burn it to the ground to lay the foundation for new growth. Vineyards could be very profitable and the process of wine making was long past through time. The fist sign of Jesus was turning water into wine, and not just a basic wine but a fine wine. The vineyard passages contain key elements of how the vineyards are maintained to achieve this feet.

  24. I never realized that owning a vineyard and making wine was so difficult or that the plants could be temperamental. I found the background about vineyards interesting and it helped me understand the metaphor Jesus used. The analogy of the vineyard and the care it needs in order to be fruitful is an effective way to show the depth of God’s relationship with his people. Jesus’ last “I am” statement emphasizes the intimate and close connection between Him, the vine, and his followers, the branches. Jesus compares Israel to a vineyard that was planted and nurtured by God. It also highlights the importance of Jesus as the true Israel, who fulfills the covenant. This transformation of the vineyard concept is essential to understanding the transition from the Old Covenant to the New Covenant. He also emphasized that there is no life apart from the vine, or apart from God. The disciples, who are a part of this new Israel, will also experience suffering and inherit the enemies of Jesus because of their connection to Him. This metaphor is important as it shows the depth and complexity of this metaphor in John 15 and offers a unique perspective on the relationship between Jesus, his disciples, and His divine plan.

  25. Honestly, reading through this story I never knew having a vineyard and making wine was such a complicated process. To me alot of metaphors stuck out to me . In Romans 11, the apostle Paul uses the metaphor of an olive tree to illustrate God’s relationship with the Jewish people and the inclusion of the Gentiles in God’s plan of salvation. The context of this chapter is essential to understanding the significance of Paul’s twist to the metaphor and whether it remains the same metaphor throughout. In the earlier part of Romans 11, Paul discusses the concept of a cultivated olive tree. The tree represents God’s covenant with the Jewish people, with the natural branches symbolizing the Jews. The twist in the metaphor that you’re referring to occurs in Romans 11:24, where Paul describes how the natural branches (Jews) can also be grafted back into their own olive tree if they do not persist in unbelief. Overall, The core metaphor of the olive tree remains consistent, but the focus shifts within the metaphor to address different aspects of God’s plan and His faithfulness to both Jews and Gentiles.

  26. This study always invokes questions for me, regarding the WAY to Jesus. The biggest one for me is the thoughts behind Jews and their mentality towards Jesus. I sometimes sit back and wonder how many Jews are saved, if any. I think of the ones who still obtain the law and all the commands made to their ancestors. I know that they can be astray from the path that is through Jesus, which is the only path, but I just think of how they once were THE people. Even though I believe in Jesus being the ONE way to heaven I just reflect on that often. In the Köstenberger reading, he says “This does not mean that there no longer remains a place for Jews in the family of God… A paradigm shift has taken place in which faith in Jesus has superseded keeping the Law as the primary religious point of reference” (page 150). I think he puts this in a very nice way, I can imagine it was a hard thing for Jews to wrap their head around because they were the people and now God is letting any who believe into the kingdom. But this is due to their continual failing, and the need for the ultimate sacrifice. But then I also question… wouldn’t following Jesus be easier than keeping up the Law… but I know that Jews, to this day, do not believe Jesus is the actual Messiah. I find this all fascinating and I would love to one day just have the free time to do more research and just understand the people better.

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