I have not done a book giveaway in a while. As it turns out I have several books I have been setting aside for a time such as this. In fact, I get occasional emails from readers wondering when I am going to give away another… today is that day.
As I mentioned in the original review, Manifold Beauty is a biblical-theological reading of Genesis 1. Each chapter represents a unique theological interpretation of the creation story. Although the authors do not deny Genesis 1 is a literal creation story, they are more interested in the theology of the creation story than the mechanics of creation. Although the principal topic is Genesis 1, the chapters provide a full canonical perspective for each theological topic.
In the introduction, Davidson and Turner are clear that none of their suggested layers are entirely new, each layer draws on previous scholarship. They argue the themes presented in this book are complementary, they all “contribute to and reinforce the unified message of Genesis 1” (11). The authors agree with the Chicago statement on biblical inerrancy but understand a distinction between the literal meaning and a literalistic interpretation. In the full review, I summarize the seven theological layers covered in Manifold Beauty, so read that post for more details on the book.
If you want a free copy of this book, leave a comment with your name and email (if it is not in your profile already) so I can contact you if you win. I will put all the names in a spreadsheet, randomize them, then use a random number generator to select a winner on November 15, 2021 (one week from today).
If you don’t win this book, check back for another giveaway starting November 15.
Davidson, Gregg and Kenneth J. Turner. The Manifold Beauty of Genesis 1: A Multi-Layered Approach. Grand Rapids, Mich. Kregel, 2021. 210 pp. Pb; $22.99. Link to Kregel Academic
This new book on Genesis 1 from Kregel Academic represents a biblical theological reading of Genesis one. Each chapter in The Manifold Beauty of Genesis 1 represents a theological interpretation of the creation story. Although they do not deny Genesis 1 is a literal creation story, the authors are more interested in the theology of the creation story than relating the seven days of creation to any scientific theory. Although the principal topic is Genesis 1, the chapters provide a full canonical perspective for each theological topic.
Gregg Davidson is a professor and chair of the School of Geology and Geological Engineering at the University of Mississippi. He contributed to The Grand Canyon, Monument to an Ancient Earth (Kregel 2016). Kenneth Turner is professor of Old Testament and biblical languages at Toccoa Falls College. His Ph.D. dissertation was published as The Death of Deaths in the Death of Israel: Deuteronomy’s Theology of Exile (Wipf & Stock, 2010) and edited the Daniel I. Block festschrift (Eisenbrauns, 2013).
The first two chapters of this book lay out their method. Using the metaphor of geological layers, the authors suggest scripture often contains many layers of truth. For example, Isaiah’s messianic prophecies can be interpreted as a prediction of a king who will break the power of the oppressor (Isaiah 9:1-7). But those same prophecies include the suffering servant (Isaiah 52:13-53:12). The second chapter offers a second analogy for a theological reading of Genesis. Comparing the genealogies in Matthew 1 and Luke 3, they argue that both are true, even if there are some differences. Ancient eastern cultures often use numbers symbolically in ways that western culture does not. That Matthew has three groups of fourteen in his genealogy and Luke has seventy-seven names from God to Jesus is significant theologically. “Truth claims of the Bible should not be measured against literary norms of a culture 2000 years removed” (20). Drawing the analogy to the creation story in Genesis 1, the authors wonder about the separation of light and darkness twice in the chapter. How can there be light (1:3-5) before God creates the sun (1:14-18)? The numbers three and seven are pervasive in the creation story. Both observations point to the theology underlying the creation story.
In the introduction, the authors are clear that none of their suggested layers are entirely new. This is true, each of their suggested layers draws on previous scholarship, as demonstrated by footnotes to both ancient and contemporary literature. They argue the themes presented in this book are complementary, they all “contribute to and reinforce the unified message of Genesis 1” (11). The authors agree with the Chicago statement on biblical inerrancy, but understand a distinction between the literal meaning and a literalistic interpretation.
A potential objection to a theological reading of Genesis 1 is the motivation to harmonize Scripture and science. The authors point out that literary understandings of Genesis 1 were popular long before apparent conflicts were raised by science. Both Origin and Augustine believed in the authority of Scripture but also wrote figuratively on the days of creation. In addition, many of the biblical scholars they cite in the course of the book specifically disavow evolution (39). Some readers may be challenged by the assertion that Genesis 1 can teach seven different themes. For example, how can the days in Genesis 1 be literal, but not literal? How can the days be both sequential and not sequential? Throughout the book, the authors stress that these are not seven competing views of Genesis 1, but layers of meaning that are all present in the text. They do not want to assert that one is more important than another, including a literal reading of the seven days of creation.
The rest of the book explores seven layers of meaning in Genesis 1, highlighting various aspects of biblical theology. For each layer, the authors present a theological reading of the creation story, followed by several challenges and responses. For example, “this view is new, so it can’t be true,” or “this view is too complicated to be plausible” (140-41). In each case, they briefly deal with potential objections to the theological reading. Chapters end with a series of discussion questions useful for classroom or small group Bible study.
First, Genesis 1 can be read as a song. In this chapter, the authors highlight the literary and poetic framework of the first chapter of Genesis. There is a parallel structure to the days of creation, with the first three days dealing with the formlessness of creation by giving it proper form, and the second three days dealing with the emptiness of creation, filling it with various things (birds, fish, animals, humans). I first encountered this idea in Allen Ross, Creation and Blessing (Baker, 1996), although this is a common view.
Second, the creation story can be read as an analogy. Although the content of this chapter is the biblical theology of work. In Exodus 20:8-11, Israel was to consider the creation week a model, or an analogy, for the human rhythm of work and rest (43) and the idea of Sabbath is embedded in the creation story itself. The authors will return to the idea of Sabbath in their chapter on Genesis 1 as calendar.
Third, Genesis 1 is often described as a polemic against the gods of the ancient Near East. Genesis 1 is an origin story which is in some ways comparable to Babylonian, Egyptian or Mesopotamia mythology. But there are important distinctions. For example, Genesis highlights human worth as image bearers of God. Another major distinction is God considers his creation good, something missing from ancient near eastern creation stories.
Fourth, the creation story is often related to a larger theme in biblical theology, covenant. Following Daniel Block’s Covenant: The Framework of God’s Plan (Baker, 2021), the authors observe that the idea of covenant plays a critical role in the biblical narrative. After comparing the Mosaic covenant with the form of a Hittite vassal treaty, they briefly describe Abrahamic and Noahic covenant. For many, the creation covenant might be described as a “royal land grant.” Adam is like a vassal placed in the Garden of Eden to perform certain tasks for the sovereign. In a land grant, when the vassal fails, they are exiled from the land. When Adam broke the clear commandment of God, he was exiled from the Garden of Eden. This has become a pervasive theme in biblical theology in recent years, for example, see Matthew S. Harmon, Rebels and Exiles: A Biblical Theology of Sin and Restoration (IVP Academic 2020) or L. Michael Morales, Exodus Old and New: A Biblical Theology of Redemption (IVP Academic 2020)
Fifth, Genesis 1 is sometimes compared to a temple. Following Greg Beale, The Temple and the Church’s Mission (IVP Academic 2004) or John Walton, The Lost World of Genesis One (Zondervan, 2009), the authors compare the biblical description of creation with ancient Near Eastern temples, especially the idea of a cosmic mountain where the gods lived. They point out many texts drawn from the whole that compare the original creation to the garden of Eden. This cosmic temple is the unique place of God’s presence as well as the place of God’s throne, where his priestly inhabitants live and serve him. There are several parallels between descriptions of the Garden of Eden and Solomon’s temple (helpfully summarized in several charts). Looking ahead to the end of the canon of Scripture, they draw attention to the new heavens and new earth in Revelation 21-22 as a restoration of the original creation (see also Harmon’s Rebels and Exiles).
Sixth, Genesis 1 can be read in the context of calendars, or, to put it differently, a biblical theology of time. The chapter surveys the importance of festivals and liturgical dates in the law and draws analogies to how these times are associated with Noah’s flood, the Exodus and the wilderness wanderings, and the creation story. Once again, several charts helpfully illustrated these points. The chapter follows Michael LeFebvre’s Liturgy of Creation (IVP Academic, 2019).
Seventh, the creation story introduces an important theme found through the Old Testament, Land. The authors are following John Sailhamer and Seth Postell in this chapter, but there are other biblical theologies of land, such as Walter Bruggeman’s The Land: Place As Gift, Promise, and Challenge in Biblical Faith (Fortress, 1977), Oren R. Martin, Bound for the Promised Land (IVP Academic, 2015) and Benjamin L. Gladd, From Adam and Israel to the Church (IVP Academic, 2019). In this chapter, the authors draw some analogies from the Garden of Eden to the promised land, but the main comparison is between Adam and Israel. Just as Adam was to serve as a priest in the temple (the garden of Eden) Israel was to be a kingdom of priests. Comparisons between Genesis 1 and the Law are summarized in two detailed charts (150-51). Adam’s failure anticipates Israel’s failure to be priests, but it also opens the door to future messianic hope. This is signaled as early as Genesis 3:15, but also in the blessing of Jacob (Genesis 49), and the rescue from Egypt (Exodus 15), the second generation in the wilderness (Numbers 24), and in the curses and blessings of the law (Deuteronomy 32- 33).
Conclusion. Each of these seven layers are excellent introductions to a full monograph on the biblical theology of covenant, temple, or land, etc. These are all popular biblical theology themes, as illustrated in the New Studies in Biblical Theology series or the Essential Studies on Biblical Theology series (both IVP Academic).
As expressed in the introduction to the book, the authors hope readers will appreciate the grandeur and beauty of the creation story after reading this book. But they also want readers to recognize that a proper understanding of Genesis 1 is not limited to a single perspective. The creation story reflects the manifold beauty of God’s creation in its diverse theological aspects.
Thanks to Kregel Academic for kindly providing me with a review copy of this book. This did not influence my thoughts regarding the work.
Keathley, Kenneth and Mark F. Rooker, eds. 40 Questions about Creation and Evolution. 40 Questions and Answers Series. Grand Rapids, Mich. Kregel, 2015. 432 pp. Pb; $23.99. Link to Kregel.
Kenneth D. Keathley (PhD, Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary) and Mark F. Rooker (PhD, Brandeis University) are both professors at Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary. Rooker describes himself as a young-earth creationist, while Keathley holds to an old-earth view. Together they have produced an irenic and fair book on the often controversial topics of creation and evolution. The book also includes a number of chapters on other issues in Genesis related to creationism, such as the age of the earth, the historical Adam, and the extent of the flood.
To be honest, when the opportunity to review this book came up I almost passed since I find most of these sorts of books creation rather argumentative, producing a great deal of heat and very little light. I have read many conservative books on creationism that seemed to be aimed and scaring the faithful away from thinking about what the Bible might actually say. But this is not the case for 40 Questions about Creation and Evolution. Keathley and Rooker usually present several sides to the issue and rarely present issues as either/or litmus tests for a “real Christian.” While there is neither author identifies themselves as a theistic evolutionist or an advocate of intelligent design, they present these views fairly.
What is more, this is a genuinely scholarly book, interacting with the original language of Genesis as well as a broad range of scholarship. By scanning through the notes I recognize many familiar evangelical scholars, but they are not from the most conservative side of evangelicalism. In addition, all of the major Genesis commentaries are represented when discussing and exegetical issue.
Part one is four chapters concerning the doctrine of creation. Here Keathley and Rooker deal with the place of the creation narrative in systematic and biblical theology. Since creation is the beginning of the “grand narrative of the Bible” the creation story re-appears frequently throughout whole Bible, culminating in a “new creation” in Revelation.
Part two contains six chapters on creation in Genesis 1-2. In this section the authors deal with some of the literary problems of relating the two creation stories in Genesis 1 and 2 as well as the various options for understanding the function of Genesis 1:1 to the rest of the chapter. Two chapters are devoted to more theological issues. Question 9 concerns “The Meaning of the Sabbath.” Question 10 focuses on the purpose of mankind based on the creation narrative.
Part three presents six different views on the days of creation. A short chapter describes the Gap Theory, then Keathley and Rooker present a chapter several other more popular theories for understanding the days in Genesis 1: The Day-Age (Hugh Ross), Framework (Mark Ross), Temple Inauguration (Levenson, Walton, Beale), Historical Creationism (John Sailhammer), and Twenty-four Hour Day (Edward Young). These could be seen as moving from “more open” to evolution to “less open,” but in all five cases these are legitimate interpretations of the days in Genesis 1 and are all compatible with both inspiration and inerrancy.
Perhaps the most controversial section of the book is part four on the age of the earth. Two chapters deal with evidence for old and young earth theories, and there are four sections on some of the problems with a very young earth. For example, gaps in the biblical genealogies may permit a much older earth than some of the most vocal young-earth creationists would accept (ch. 17), and light from stars implies an old creation (ch. 21) or a “mature creation” model (ch. 22).
Part five deals with a series of implications of a biblical view of creation. Among these nine chapters Keathley and Rooker deal with several views on the Image of God (ch. 23) and the effect of the fall (chs. 25-27) Three chapters are on Noah’s flood (chs. 29-30) since young-earth creationists often use the flood as an argument for the appearance of age. Only one chapter deals with the currently hot topic of the Historical Adam (ch. 24). Here the authors interact with Peter Ens (The Evolution of Adam, Brazos, 2012) and Denis Lamoureux (I Love Jesus and I Accept Evolution, Wipf & Stock, 2009). In this case, they conclude “an affirmation of the historicity of Adam and Eve must be maintained.” They cite C. John Collins, Did Adam and Even Really Exist (Crossway, 2011) and conclude an affirmation of a real Adam and Eve is required for a proper understanding of the Fall.
The final part of the book contains questions about evolution and intelligent design. These include brief descriptions of the theory of evolution itself, Darwinism, whether Darwinism is an ideology. They fairly summarize arguments both for and against evolution, although they reject them in the end. The final two chapters of the book concern Intelligent Design and the “Fine Tuning Argument.” Perhaps most interesting chapter 38, “Can a Christian Hold to Theistic Evolution” This is obviously a rather controversial topic since there are many Christians who assume Christian belief are completely incompatible. Keathley and Rooker do not doubt the salvation of theistic evolutionists, but they clearly conclude it is very difficult to fully embrace both evolution and an evangelical form of Christianity. They cite Wayne Grudem’s eight objections and conclude the chapter that “evolutionary creationism is a theory in search of theological justification” (385). While the format of the book does not allow for a response, Enns and Lamoureux might disagree, or agree and leave evangelicalism behind.
Conclusion. When I first received an invitation to review this book, I almost passed because I assumed this would be a very conservative book arguing entirely for Young Earth Creationism. For question 19, “What are the Evidences for the Universe Being Young,” there are only as few Answers in Genesis references and there is nothing from directly Ken Ham. Keathley and Rooker observe the problems with the evidence often offered by young-earth creationists and cite young-earthers Nelson and Reynolds admission that “recent creationists should humbly agree that there is, at the moment, implausible purely on scientific grounds” (199). This is certainly not an “absolute young-earth creationist” book!
There are number of chapters I found unusual for a book strictly on creationism. Part five concerns the Fall and the Flood, both of which go beyond creation and evolution. I doubt “forty questions” could be developed on just historical Adam issues so it makes some sense they appear in this collection, although the book could be fairly titled Forty Questions about Genesis 1-11.