Slaves and Wives – 1 Peter 2:18-3:7 (Part 1)

Peter has stated several times in this letter that the readers are living like “strangers and aliens” in this world. Since they are strangers, the world is watching them very closely. It is therefore essential that the Christian live life to a higher moral and ethical standard. In the first section, Peter said that the believer must be submit to all human authorities, even the Emperor of the Roman Empire.

Roman Slave and Centurion

While this seems like a shock from a modern, American perspective (where protesting the government seems to be a sacred right), Peter sees obedience to human authority as a way of showing the world that the Christians are honorable and our God is worthy of respect.

Peter treats slaves, wives and then husbands together as a “household.” This was the most basic unit in the Roman world and every Greek and Roman ethical writer had something to say about the proper roles within a household. In general, the husband was to be the authority in the home, wives and children were to be subordinate to the husband, and slaves were the lowest of all.

In the next two sections of the letter, Peter will give two additional examples that might cause outsiders to attack believers: slaves and wives. Both of these examples are more controversial than obedience to the government.

First, he commands slaves to be subject to their masters because Jesus himself suffered injustice with silence. That the Bible does not command the release of slaves is often a problem for the non-believer, and even for the Christian we struggle to apply texts about slavery in a modern context since we believe that slavery is morally repugnant. But by reading Peter’s words in the context of first century Rome, we will find that he is not endorsing this extremely common practice, but using it as an opportunity for the Christian slave to suffer like Jesus did.

Roman Wife and ChildrenSecond, he commands wives to be subject to their husbands and dress modestly. That Peter would move from slaves to wives is jarring from a modern perspective, and that he would have the audacity to tell the women how to dress is considered rude my many modern readers.

He even uses the same words for wives as he did for slaves (“be subject”)! Most husbands know that quoting this line out of context to your wife is not the best way develop a good marriage relationship! But again, context is necessary to avoid making rather sweeping applications that make no sense in the modern world.

In both cases, Peter urges Christians to observe their place in society and live honorably so that the outsider will see and perhaps praise God as a result of how Christians live their lives. In the next two posts I want to examine Peter’s comments about both slaves and wives in order to draw some application to church practice in a modern context.

15 thoughts on “Slaves and Wives – 1 Peter 2:18-3:7 (Part 1)

  1. Some good points here, Phillip. Things would go smoother if people would allow, as you seem to, for more general principles in canonical scripture to be applied to changing societal norms. These are always changing and often for the better, based on clearer, deeper understanding of human biology, psychology, relational systems, etc. Key example these days would be LGBT issues. Not trying to lure you into that controversy, but I’m grateful my own (UCC) denomination is “welcoming” (tho not all our congregations are officially so), and that more churches are becoming so also. And certainly having women pastors makes good sense within “God’s order”, despite the reactionary (to Paul) position of the writer of the Pastoral Epistles (ca. 100-120 A.D.).

  2. How we present ourselves, as Christians, in society is important. Peter talked about how we are being watched. In my life, that has proven to be true. Going to a public school and having predominantly non-believing friends, my actions mattered. Even though these passages about women and slaves can be seen as “cringey” now, he was trying to tell them to be a light for Christ in every situation (in your role). Do to the influence of our modern views, it is hard for me to put myself in that generation’s shoes. I am extremely curious what the reaction of slaves and wives would have been when hearing this. Were they reluctant/angry or were they gracious/completely understanding? “The “soft difference” of the Christian must not be mistaken for a weak difference, for it takes great spiritual strength to fearlessly find one’s identity with God against the grain of one’s society,” (Jobes 347). To be an example for all is so important. If God is calling us to be lights to the world, it starts with our actions. And having actions that please the Lord all the time can be hard, because our society tempts us in so many different ways (especially with technology). “Finally, we encounter people who see, appreciate, and are finally won over to the Christian faith,” (2:12; 3:1). Our actions can really change the heart of people. Our words do matter, but our actions will emphasize it even more.

    • Taylor,
      I agree with that the way we present ourselves as Christians is important. We live in a fallen world and so it is important as Christians that we be and that we act differently than people currently following the world and not Christ. I grew up going to a public school and some of my closest friends were non-believers as well and so I can relate to you in the sense that it was extremely important for me to not blend it and do or say what they did. In order to show that I knew Christ, I needed to show that through my actions. I believe that once we are saved (truly) we instantly become motivated to do things for Christ. Before we are saved we have quite the selfish way of thinking because we want things for ourselves and to give glory to ourselves, but once we are saved, we immediately begin to want to do things for Christ and for His glory, not ours and that is partly shown through our actions. It is very important for us to be kind and to be patient and to be strong in every situation, like this passage said. When people see that we act differently, it begins a seed in their heart and they start to wonder why and how we’re different and that opens up the talk about Jesus.

  3. Throughout I Peter, he continues along the theme that we as Christians are supposed to live our lives the way that Christ did, which was entirely counter cultural. When reading this passage, as a 21st century woman, it may be tempting to jump to the idea that it is being implied that women are inferior to men and therefore must submit. On the contrary, this New Testament is not an outdated passage on gender role, but in fact a progressive statement among the people of that day. “While some modern interpreters consider the New Testament household codes to be hopelessly chauvinistic…the New Testament writers actually subverted cultural expectations by elevating the slave and the wife with unparalleled dignity” (Jobe’s,p.291) Isolating this passage ignores the fact that Jesus respected and utilized women in an unusual way of his generation, so much so that he called his church his bride, a term of endearment. This passage does not belittle women, or compare them to slaves, but rather empowers them to live the way that Christ did- counter culturally, with a new sense of value not given by the culture of that day. Women today can also be empowered by this passage as we still are empowered by Christ the way that women then were.

  4. Peter’s writing and addressing his readers as “strangers and aliens” is a way to show the difference we are called to live out. We, as believers, are to live a life higher in moral and ethical standards to be a light to others in the world. This message applies to us more this week than ever before. The world is panicking, looking for control and looking for hope more than ever because of the Coronavirus. Although, we still follow governing authorities. Even when we are to shut down churches and gatherings, we follow the law and the spirit of the law, in order to be respectful. We do, however, become creative, respecting but still doing God’s work.
    The same applies to 1 Peter when we look at the view of the household during this time. In the context of slaves and their masters, we are not simply making a comparison between then and now. Peter is also not endorsing this common practice during this time, rather he is using an opportunity for a comparison of similar suffering. We also look at the role of wives to their husbands. Again, we cannot look at modern interpretations. Peter is looking at both of these relationships and looking at taking those situations and how to live in a way that is honorable and brings Glory to God through the circumstances. In looking at it with the right context we can draw out the correct applications to understand our roles as Christians. We are to be lights, to live a life that is different, that is honorable.

  5. “Jesus himself suffered injustice with silence” (Long, 2018). As mentioned above, the American modern church often shies away from the idea of submission, suffering, and the idea that one can bear one’s burdens in silence. The idea that Jesus himself suffered silently the injustices that were handed to him is not a popular message. Looking back through American history, this great theme of patriotism, and fighting for justice, and denouncing government when it doesn’t suit our liking anymore is very strong. Now that is not to say that there is not a time and place for standing up for one’s rights or the rights of others, but it strikes me that that is not necessarily the biblical mandate. Oftentimes throughout the New Testament the theme of staying strong, respecting those in authority, and standing out in society are echoed again and again. Not necessarily the message to overthrow, riot, and loose one’s own thoughts and opinions for the world. Peter reminds us of this idea, that we are supposed to respect those who are in authority over us, even if it is unjust and unfair. Jobes points out, “Peter bases his instructions for all Christian members of society on the example of the lowly position in human society that Jesus himself was willingly adopted” (2011, p. 305). Each Christian is called in some respect to react humbly and meekly to those events, situations, and people who seem like they hinge on our rights. We were not created for this world, meaning that our wants and desires will most likely not align with those of society. There is a delicate balance between fighting for justice and truth, and understanding the reality that our hearts will not be satisfied here, and we need to show respect to those the Lord has allowed to rise up.


    Jobes, K. H. (2011). Letters to the Church: A Survey of Hebrews and the General Epistles. Zondervan.

  6. Looking at what Peter was saying about the household from today’s perspective would not do the “household codes” justice. Today the idea of submitting or being humble leaves a bad taste for many. When Peter says that we ought to submit to the government authorities this is something that would go against the grain of society for American’s. Since we have this government that is “for the people” the people often disrespect leaders who are elected that they do not agree with. This happens no matter who is in office. I have seen firsthand how Christian people lose all opportunities for relationships and showing love to another person because of how they speak ruthlessly about government officials. For Christians living in America, we should not take for granted that this is a “free” country. We have liberty to express our religion without being killed unlike many other countries where Christians live out their beliefs with the risk of being killed each day. We should “Live as people who are free, not using your freedom as a cover-up for evil, but living as servants of God.” and we should gladly “Honor everyone. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honor the emperor [or those in leadership]. (1 Peter 2: 16-17).

  7. It is clear if you read this passage without adding the historical context into the equation, this passage could clearly alienate many today. In fact, I read through 1 Peter before reading Jobes, and when I got to this passage I was even taken aback for a moment. I can see how many would find this offensive or archaic, both in the subjects of slavery and wives. However, once again this was a reminder of how important research and a clear understanding of who the original intended audience was. Throughout the letter, Peter speaks to the importance of living a life that is holy and stands out from those who are not believers. With this in mind, I found Jobes explanation of how these “household codes” held important value for the Christians that find themselves in a new land and culture. Because these codes were so vital to how society ran, Peter knew that in this instance it was better to be above reproach, than to draw unwanted attention. Interestingly Jobes emphasizes that in the context of time, Peter is progressive because directly addressing wives and slaves was not the norm in Greek society (p. 291). Put into perspective then, we should not look at this passage as degrading or submissive but realize that he is actually bucking the cultural tradition. That brings a completely different perspective to reading this passage! But I think the most important thing to take away from this passage is not calling people to be submissive to others, but the call that as Christians we need to be living a life that does not simply follow the status quo but stands out as holy and honorable.

    Jobes, K.H. (2011). Letters to the Church. Zondervan.

  8. The three passages in the New Testament that are known as the “household codes” (Jobes, 289), which includes 1 Peter 2:18-3:7, say that women and slaves are to submit to authority and to live in a way reflecting Christ. Although this is true, many in today’s culture read these passages as highly hierarchy and even sexist when the author Peter uses the words “submit” or be “subject” regarding slaves and wives (2:18, 3:3). However, understanding the cultural context of when the book of 1 Peter was written is extremely helpful. Peter was not condoning slavery, but as Long says, was comparing Jesus’ suffering as a servant to the position of a Roman slave, which was not the same as the slavery of African Americans in American history. Furthermore, the position of the wife was actually elevated in the New Testament because women, along with slaves, were thought “to be deficient” (Jobes, 292). The fact that Peter even mentioned women directly was elevating not demoting in that day in age. The reason that Peter gives for the codes of conduct in the household was to provide “the foundational principles for right Christian living within the most basic unit of Greco-Roman society, the household” (Jobes 290) and to win others over for Christ (1 Peter 3:3).

  9. This is a very understandable blog post that helps the reader to comprehend the household codes that Peter mentions throughout 1 Peter; as for how woman, children, and slaves need to respect their governance, which in most cases was the husband of the family or male figure in charge of the household. I like how P.Long starts this blog post saying that mankind needs to be obedient in the precedence of power and rule stating even the Roman Emperor needs to be obedient and follow somebody, whether it be one of his gods. Moreover, “Peter sees obedience to human authority as a way of showing the world that the Christians are honorable, and our God is worthy of respect” (P.Long). This quote means a lot from Jobes because later in the reading of chapter 9 Jobes talks a lot about What Would Jesus Do? The answer is already known because we know that when in adversary Jesus would keep a level head and would always see the situation no matter good or bad as a glass half full and would always have the most impregnable faith towards His Father God. “To mobilize the resources of faith and action which will enable the beleaguered addresses to stand firm and persevere as the community of God in a society from which they are estranged” (Jobes 550). This passage from Jobes chapter 9 is important because Jobes talks about how faith in God will do the trick when there are slanderous and hateful remarks thrown your way; overall, after reading this blog post it is evident that one needs to keep a level head and stay in close contact with God and have faith in the trinity in order to live a pleasing life according to God, Jesus and the Holy Spirit.

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